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Term / AbbreviationDescription
1/10 Gb Compliant1/10 Gb Compliant marks a network, digital switching device, or other hardware associated with the transmission or handling of digital signals as having the appropriate software, firmware or hardware to manage one gigabyte p/second of digital information signal without latency. The /10 marks the device as having the appropriate protocol to handle a 10 gigabyte p/second speed if a system or network is upgraded to or designed to that speed.
180º CameraA term used to describe a specialized camera that offers a 180-degree view of an area as well as special viewing and reviewing features.
2FATwo-Factor Authentication is a method of determining the identity or credentials of an individual using two methods, commonly involving something you know (such as a password) and something you have (such as a card). The second factor now more frequently involves a personal unchangeable characteristic verified using biometric technology (such as fingerprint, face or iris recognition). 2FA is commonly used for gaining access to information or networks or for use in financial or banking transactions. The simplest form of 2FA is used by millions of people who possess Chip and PIN cards.
360º CameraA term used to describe a specialized camera that offers a 360-degree view of an area as well as special viewing and reviewing features.
419 ScamReferring to section 419 of the Nigerian criminal code, these scams follow the format of an e-mailed invitation to take part in a money laundering scheme to wash funds left by a deceased relative of the sender.
AbatementThe process of reducing or minimizing public health dangers and nuisances, usually supported by regulation or legislation, e.g., noise abatement, smoke abatement.
AbortA telephoned voice call or an electronically transmitted message, with appropriate safeguards as to authenticity that indicates a just-transmitted alarm event is not to be reacted to as an emergency. An abort is also a procedure to prevent an alarm signal from being sent to the monitoring facility.
Access(1) A condition or equipment mode that allows authorized entry into a protected area without alarm by electronically or mechanically deactivating a sensor or sensors. (2) The ability and means to approach, store or retrieve data, or to communicate with or make use of Information Technology resources. (3) The ability and opportunity to obtain knowledge of classified information. An individual, in fact, may have access to classified information by being in a place where such information is kept if the security measures which are in force are not sufficient to prevent gaining knowledge of the classified information.
Access ControlA measure that provides restriction of access to a place or other resource and ensures authorized access to physical or logical assets. A procedure to identify and/or admit personnel with proper security clearance and required access approval(s) to information or facilities using physical, electronic, and/or human controls.
Access Control MechanismsMeasures or procedures designed to prevent unauthorized access to protected information or facilities.
Access Control SystemAn electronic, electro-mechanical or mechanical system designed to identify and/or admit authorized personnel to the secure area. Identification may be based on any number of factors such as a sequencing of combinations, special keys, badges, fingerprints, signature, voice, etc. These systems are for personnel access control only and are not to be used for the protection of stored information or materials.
Access Eligibility DeterminationA formal determination that a person meets the personnel security requirements for access to a specified type or types of classified information.
Access RightsThe cumulative rights provided to a person, system, or other object that are required to perform one or more activities.
Access TerminationThe removal of an individual from access to assets or other program information.
AccountA record of information that is used to uniquely define someone or something.
ACLAccess Control List; The sum of permissions in access control systems for any resource and used to determine authorization of the resources to use it.
Acoustic Glass Break DetectorA glass break detector that senses unique acoustic frequencies or frequency profiles that are present when glass breaks.
ACSAccess Control Services
Active BarriersMaterials or systems, which must be command or sensor activated to prevent or impede unauthorized passage.
Activity DetectionA feature of the generation 3 multiplexor range that uses video motion detection to improve camera update.
AESAdvanced Encryption Standard
AFIS - Automated Fingerprint Identification System
The Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is a biometric identification methodology that uses digital imaging technology to obtain, store, and analyze fingerprint data. The AFIS was originally used by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in criminal cases. Lately, it has gained favor for general identification and fraud prevention.
Agent Response, PublicFollow-up to an RFR to a dispatchable event by one or more persons trained to investigate alarm events.
AggregationA term used to describe a compilation of classified or unclassified official information or assets.
AggressorAny person seeking to compromise a function or structure.
AHJAuthorities Having Jurisdiction
Alarm Investigation CompanyAn organization that provides response by trained alarm investigators. Monitoring facilities and servicing alarm companies may provide their own alarm investigators.
Alarm InvestigatorA person trained to provide runner or alarm investigation services. See Alarm Investigator Service.
Alarm Investigator ServiceA response service provided by a representative of the monitoring facility or the serving alarm company. Such representative does not always act as an emergency response person to apprehend criminals, to fight fires, or to provide medical services, but acts as a representative of the user. Also offers assistance and follow-up help to emergency service providers.
Alarm Investigators' RoomA room, or area, either within the monitoring facility building or at a remote location in which alarm investigators are on duty when they are not at, or responding to, alarm users locations.
Alarm Response RecordsAlarm monitoring facility records of alarm response activity, as appropriate, including, but not necessarily limited to, the following to the extent that alarm response services are provided by employees of the monitoring facility: (1) Date and time of the original alarm signal, 2) Date and time the public response agency was notified, 3) Date and time the alarm agent was dispatched, 4) Date and time the alarm agent arrived at the alarmed premises, 5) Date and time the alarm agent departed the scene after the agent's report was completed, 6) Report of event disposition reported by the public response agency, 7) All details included in the alarm agent's report.
Alarm RetransmissionSee Request For Response (RFR).
Alarm Signal CommunicationSignal transmission between alarm system and monitoring equipment, usually to an off-premises location.
Alarm Station(1) A manually actuated device installed at a fixed location to transmit an alarm signal in response to an alarm condition, such as a concealed holdup button in a bank teller's cage. (2) A well-marked emergency control unit, installed a fixed location usually accessible to the public, used to summon help in response to an alarm condition. The control unit contains either a manually actuated switch or telephone connection to fire or police headquarters, or a telephone answering service. See also remote station alarm.
Alarm SystemA combination of sensors, controls, and annunciators (devices that announce an alarm via sound, light, or other means) arranged to detect and report an intrusion or other emergency.
Alarm VerificationGeneric name given to many techniques used to confirm or deny the validity of alarm signals received at the monitoring facility.
AlarmingThe way in which CCTV or other equipment responds to an input signal, normally a simple switch closure; the response varies.
Alarms per System per Year (ASY)
ASY represents an average for the number of times per year that public emergency response agencies are requested to respond to received alarms on a "per alarm system" basis. An ASY of 1.0 means that a numerically known group of alarm systems generated one alarm (RFR) per system during the year. The ASY figure is a far more meaningful number or index of the performance of alarm systems in the community, state, or country, than is a "false alarm percentage" number. The ASY includes only alarm signals that were passed on to the PSAP as RFRs. It does not include alarms received by monitoring facilities that were not relayed to the PSAP.
ALASThe Latin American Security Association (ALAS) was founded in 1997 with a clear purpose in mind: educating, setting standards, and elevating the level of professionalism in the Latin American Security Market. ALAS is the furthering the education of electronic security technicians and engineers in Latin America, almost 2.800 people have been certified with this program at the end of 2004 in alarms, access control, CCTV, fire detection and security systems integration courses.
ALC (Automatic Level Control)
On AL lenses, aka peak/average control. This feature allows auto iris lenses to provide detail in bright areas or in dark areas depending on how it is adjusted.
AlertThe notification of an alarm that may require a response.
Alternate SiteA location, other than the normal facility, used to conduct critical business in the event of a disaster.
Ambient LightThe surrounding light within an environment. The light already present in a scene, before any additional lighting is added.
Ambulance DispatchSee Emergency Medical Service Dispatch
American Correctional Association
Holds conventions for corrections employees; publishes books for correspondence courses for promotions in the correctional field.
American Correctional Association (ACA)
The American Correctional Association (ACA) is an umbrella organization for all areas of corrections and the criminal justice system, representing professionals at county, state and federal levels. Comprised of nearly 70 chapters and affiliated organizations and more than 20,000 members, ACA helps give a collective voice to the corrections industry through publications, training, seminars and accreditation.
American Society for Industrial Security (ASIS)
ASIS International (ASIS) (asisonline.org) is the preeminent organization for security professionals, with more than 35,000 members worldwide. Founded in 1955, ASIS is dedicated to increasing the effectiveness and productivity of security professionals by developing educational programs and materials that address broad security interests, such as the ASIS Annual Seminar and Exhibits, as well as specific security topics. ASIS also advocates the role and value of the security management profession to business, the media, government entities and the public. By providing members and the security community with access to a full range of programs and services, and by publishing the industry's number one magazine-Security Management-ASIS leads the way for advanced and improved security performance.
Analog SignalsAudio/video signals where the transmission tasks are performed by translating continuously variable signals (such as voltage) into numerical equivalents, continuously varying and representing a frequency ranges. Current TV and radio signals and phone lines are analog. Audio/video signals currently used in broadcasting where the signal performs transmission tasks by translating continuously variable signals (physical variables such as voltage, pressure, flow) into numerical equivalents, continuously varying and representing a range of frequencies. Current TV and radio signals and phone lines are analog.
Angle of ViewThe maximum angle that can be viewed through a lens.
Annunciator(1) A device that signals a change of protection zone status in a security system. An annunciator may log alarms or display a continuous status for each alarm sensor in a system. Annunciators include Cathode Ray Tube displays; sometimes called an alarm receiver, alarm monitor or alarm device. (2) The component of an alarm system that announces a change of status of the systems, usually in the form of audible and/or visual signals.
ANSIAmerican National Standards Institute
Anti-Ambush DeviceA device or procedure established to let the alarm user send a silent message requesting assistance to the monitoring facility without alerting anyone on site at the protected premises. See also Hold-Up Alarm, Panic Alarm, and Early Morning Switch.
Anti-Ram Vehicle BarrierA device or barrier that prevents vehicle access for pedestrian protection and building security. Vehicle barriers are considered either passive barriers, which are stationary (e.g., fixed bollards, concrete walls, planters, berms), or active barriers, which can typically be retracted or moved out of the way to allow passage (such as retractable bollards, crash beams, and rotating plates). Passive barriers are used to create perimeter or edge protection; active barriers are applicable to roadways, driveways, or entry control points and are lowered or raised to prevent passage.
ApertureThe lens opening that controls the amount of light reaching the imager.
ARCAlarm Receiving Centers can be in-house or purchased as a service. The function of the ARC is to monitor alarms and take appropriate action. The action taken can differ depending on the client, the nature of the alarm and any additional information received when the alarm is triggered. Modern alarm systems often have false alarm detection capabilities or confirmation technology involving, for example, the triggering of a PTZ camera to perform surveillance operations. These technologies enable informed decisions to be taken regarding the alarm call.
ArchiveThe data of a system that must be saved because of its value either onsite or offsite.
Arm, AwayThe condition of a burglar alarm system in an armed state when no one remains on site within the protected premises. In this condition, all interior and perimeter sensors are active.
Arm, HomeArming a residential burglar alarm system while remaining at home. In this condition, interior protection is removed from being active to permit those who are inside to have free movement within the protected premises without causing an alarm.
Arm, OccupiedSame as Arm, Home status, but for non-residential premises. Permits persons to remain within the protected premises while perimeter security remains active.
Arm, Set, Turn OnA procedure followed by a system user or the monitoring facility to turn on an alarm system so the system is able to detect the conditions it is designed to protect against. A system may be partially armed even before the arming sequence is followed. For example, permanently wired and connected sensors, and glass break detectors, may report the conditions they are designed to detect even while the rest of the system is disarmed.
Armed Robbery AlarmSee Hold-Up Alarm
Arming StationThe device used to arm, turn on or activate, and to disarm, turn off or deactivate a burglar alarm system. An arming station may also display the current status of the burglar alarm system, or report and display problems. Arming or disarming the burglar alarm system should not have any effect on the status of fire, hold-up or other protection.
Arming Station ButtonA button or key on an arming station that can be used to trigger a panic alarm.
ArsonThe intentional damaging or destruction or attempted damag-ing or destruction of property by means of fire or explosion without the consent of the owner, or of one's own property or that of another by fire or explosion with or without the intent to defraud.
Artificial IntelligenceA digital or online system which can do tasks typically associated with human intuition and reasoning. Computer systems which perform functions normally associated with human reasoning and learning, processes such as imagination and intuition.
As BuildsA term that is used to describe final architectural layout documents of a job or project as provided by the contractor to the end-user and as based upon the notes of the contractor as the project was completed. As-builds usually include, but are not limited to; wire paths, equipment locations and positioning. As-builds are location drawings and are usually produced in CAD, Visio, or other compatible electronic formats as originally provided the end user.
ASCIIAmerican Standard Code for Information Interchange - a standard 8 bit code used in data communications. Many files going from one software program to another, such as IBM to Mac, go through translation into an ASCII format.
Aspherical LensLenses with complex curved surfaces (non-spherical shape), such as where the radius of curvature changes according to distance from the optical axis. Spherical lenses are subject to aberration and therefore cannot concentrate all the light into one point. This lens is designed so that it refracts the light passing through it either lower the lens aperture so that it passes more light or decreases barrel distortion on wide angle lenses.
AssessmentA way in which gaps are identified within a specific set of requirements by looking at the current state and desired state of a system, resulting in a gap analysis report and recommendations for remediation.
Asset(s)An asset has intrinsic value to the person or organization. Assets can be logical or physical and can be defined as information (paper or electronic), systems, or people. Anything that has tangible or intangible value to the organization. Tangible assets include human, physical, and environmental assets. Intangible assets include information, brand, and reputation.
Associated Locksmiths of America (ALOA)
The Associated Locksmiths of America Inc. (ALOA) is an international professional organization of highly qualified security professionals engaged in consulting, sales, installation and maintenance of locks, keys, safes, premises security, access controls, alarms and other security related endeavors. An ALOA membership assures consumers that a locksmith upholds the highest business and ethical standards of practice.
Associated System DownThe equipment or system to which the alarm installation is attached is shut down, is inoperative, or is disconnected. Example: A sprinkler system that has been shut off by a sprinkler contractor for repairs or sprinkler system modifications, or an industrial operation that has been shut down. The alarm system itself is not shut down and continues to perform its functions during the shut-down.
Associated System UpThe reverse of the Associated System Down indication. The equipment or system to which the alarm installation is attached has returned to normal operation, and the alarm system is once again serving its intended function.
Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE)
Provides designation for forensic accountants and CFE fraud training.
AssumptionsThe statements of a situation that are accepted to be true.
Astragal StripA narrow strip of material applied over the gap between a pair of doors for protection from unauthorized entry and sound attenuation.
Asymmetrical DSLAsymmetrical DSL: a term used to describe a specialized DSL internet connection. Symmetrical DSL lines provide a average 60% increase in download capability while restricting upload to 40% or less of the available bandwidth. Asymmetrical DSL lines provide equal or balanced upload and download capabilities.
AsynchronousBi-directional communication that is time-independent. Meaning, the sender and receiver do not communicate at the same time. Examples: electronic mail and voice mail.
AttenuationA decrease in a signal strength normally measured in decibels.
Audio Alarm VerificationThe transfer of sounds from the protected premises to the monitoring facility as a result of activation of one or more non-audio sensors, to confirm or deny the validity of the alarm signal. The audio link may be one-way or two-way.
Audio DetectorA sensor that detects specific sound patterns normally present during attempts to penetrate windows, doors, walls, ceilings and floors. This sensor differs from a microphone that listens to all sounds and can be used to remotely "listen in" to events within its area of sensitivity.
AudioconferenceA live audio conference, most frequently over telephone but can be done over the computer. Usually between two or more remote locations.
AudiographicsComputer-based technology that permits simultaneous transmission of voice and data communication and graphic images across local telephone lines in a way that is interactive between instructor and all participants.
Audit(1) A process conducted by qualified, independent auditors to review and examine records and activities to verify compliance with applicable requirements resulting in a formal report that could require corrective action. (2) An examination and verification of an agency's systems and procedures, measured against a predetermined standard.
AuthenticateTo verify the identity or origin of someone or something when the identity is presented/requested against an authoritative source of authentication information.
AuthenticationIn access control technology, the process of confirming the correctness of a claimed identity.
Authentication MechanismA tool that is use to authenticate someone or something based on the given authentication information.
AuthorizePossessing official permission or being granted / denied approval by an authoritative source (e.g., owner, steward, automated mechanism) to perform an action or set of activities.
Authorized PersonA person who has a favorable determination of eligibility for access to classified information, has signed an approved nondisclosure agreement (NdA), and has a Need-to-Know (NTK) for the specific classified information in the performance of official duties.
Authorized User AgentA person who is authorized by the user to cancel alarm signals and to ask the monitoring facility to try to cancel follow-up activities by a PSAP if it has already been notified of the alarm. Also a representative of a user who is to be notified of alarm or trouble conditions instead of, or in addition to, the PSAP.
Auto HomeA term used to describe a function of pre-positioning with Pan/Tilt based cameras whereas the unit will automatically return to a pre-programmed position after remaining inactive for a programmable period of time ranging from a few seconds to a few minutes. This feature insures that cameras are not left in positions that are not appropriate for the overall purpose of the system.
Auto ResetA programming feature that automatically resets PT units to their original or default position after a power outage.
Auto TrackingA feature that allows a PTZ camera to lock in on moving targets and automatically track the target without manual intervention.
Auto White BalanceFeature on color cameras whereby the camera constantly monitors the light and adjusts its color to maintain white areas.
Auto-FlipA term used to describe a feature of some PTZ units whereas the camera is able to tilt on a full 180 degree access from horizon down to horizon while the image automatically flips to remain right side up. This feature is accomplished via electronic compensation.
Auto-TerminatingFeature whereby equipment automatically selects the correct termination depending on whether the video output is connected.
Automatic Frequency Control (AFC)
An electronic circuit used whereby the frequencies of an oscillator is automatically maintained within specific units.
Automatic Gain Control (AGC)
An electronic circuit used whereby the gain of a signal is automatically adjusted as a function of its input or other specified parameter.
Automatic Iris LensA lens in which the aperture automatically opens or closes to maintain proper light levels on the cameras imager.
Back CompatibleA term used to describe a process of upgrading, improving, rewriting or replacing one software package with a newer version of the same software package while insuring that the newest version of the package is fully compatible with the oldest version.
Back Lighting Compensation (BLC)
A feature of modern CCD camera which electronically compensates for high background lighting to give detail which would normally be silhouetted.
Back-FocusTerm used to describe the relationship of balance between the lens and the camera. If the back-focus is set property, a function of initial set-up or installation, the image will remain in focus as the picture is moved from the full telephoto to wide view.
Back-LightA term used to describe a condition where the light behind a subject is brighter than the light on the subject. This condition is very common and causes silhouetted images and extreme wear on cameras not designed to compensate accordingly.
BackscatterThe use of backscatter X-ray technology for screening human subjects at airports and border crossings became more widespread after a terrorist bombing attempt involving explosives hidden near the surface of the bomber's body. Backscatter involves analysis of the low-dosage x-ray reflections which bounce of a human target revealing the surface profile of the human form as well as any foreign objects hidden within or under the clothing of the subject. In this respect, it is a viable and reliable alternative to physical searches or pat-downs.
BackupCopies of files, programs, data, etc. that facilitate recovery should the originals become corrupt or destroyed.
Backup Monitoring FacilityA support monitoring facility in addition to the primary monitoring facility, which can take over monitoring operations in the event the primary monitoring facility is disabled. A backup monitoring facility may double as a satellite station, and may be staffed and regularly used as a monitoring facility during certain periods.
Balanced Magnetic SwitchA type of intrusion detection system sensor which may be installed on any rigid, operable opening (e.g., doors or windows) through which access may be gained to the Special Access Program Facility (SAPF) and Sensitive Compartmented Information (SCI).
Balanced SignalMethod of transmitting video, usual over twisted pair cable, which consists of two equal but opposite signals being sent down two semiconductors.
BandwidthA measure of the capacity of a communications channel. The higher a channel's bandwidth, the more information it can carry. Example: T1 has greater bandwidth than ISDN.
Bar Lock(1) A type of rim lock in which metal bars slide out from a central point on the door and into receivers on both sides of the door frame. Turning a key or bolt on the center element retracts the bars enough to let the door open. A door with a bar lock cannot be pulled out of its frame even if the hinge pins are removed. (2) a metal rod or tube which slides through fittings affixed to the front of a file cabinet, bent at the top and secured with a combination lock, which holds the drawers closed.
BarrierAny object used to stop the movement of vehicles.
Base-Band VideoUnmodulated video signal suitable for display on a monitor, but not a domestic TV.
BaselinesThe minimum level of security requirements necessary for an organization, system, information asset, etc.
Battery BackupA standby battery that is kept fully charged for use during a primary power failure. An essential element in all electrically operated security systems. Also called Uninterruptible Power Source (UPS).
BaudA communication channel's maximum information-carrying capacity in symbols (state or level transitions) per second. The baud rate coincides with bits per second only for two-level modulation with no framing or stop bits. The term causes much confusion and it is preferable to refer to "bits per second"(bps), "bytes per second" or "characters per second".
BCMBusiness Continuity Management
Behavioral AnalyticsA term used to describe programmable software logics that recognize specific conditions, (e.g., motion, man falling, package drop-off, erratic movement, running, loitering), and activate specific responses out of the CCTV system, e.g., starting to record, bringing an image up on a monitor, activate an alarm, etc.
BIABusiness Impact Analysis; The process of analyzing an organization's business to determine the impact of a loss or disruption of service.
BICSIThe Building Industry Consulting Service International (BICSI) is a professional association supporting the advancement of the information and communications technology (ICT) community. ICT covers the spectrum of voice, data, electronic safety & security, project management and audio & video technologies. It encompasses the design, integration and installation of pathways, spaces, optical fiber- and copper-based distribution systems, wireless-based systems and infrastructure that supports the transportation of information and associated signaling between and among communications and information gathering devices.
Bill TrapA sensor that detects the removal of a specific bill in a cash drawer.
BiometricA security identification system which measures a physical feature (such as hand geometry, retinal scanning, fingerprints, facial or vocal feature), translates it into a digital form, and then compares it with the values found in the approved database.
Biometric IdentificationA method using a person's physical or chemical attributes for identification to the alarm system or the monitoring facility.
Biometric ReaderAn electronic device that uses the physical characteristics (hand geometry, eye patterns, fingerprint, voice, etc.) of the enrollee to determine authorization to enter.
BiometricsA measurable, physical characteristic or personal behavioral trait by a human being that is used to recognize the identity, or verify the claimed identity, for authentication purposes.
BitA binary digit. The unit of information that can take on one of two values, such as true or false or zero or one.
Black BoxA generic term used to reference proprietary equipment that is designed / developed by various manufacturers for the purpose of controlling, interfacing to, and/or supporting a known system. Often used to add or enhance existing features of a system … i.e.; Video Analytics added through the addition of a separate server as opposed to being a software solution that can be incorporated into the live / active system.
Black LevelThe level of the video signal that corresponds to the maximum limits of the black areas of the picture.
Blanking (Field and line fly back blanking)
The operation of turning of the monitor display, or pick-up device, during sync pulses to avoid thin white lines that appear in the picture.
BloomingThe halation and defocusing effect that occurs around the bright areas of the picture (highlight) whenever there is an increase in the brightness intensity.
Blue LightThese devises are given their name for the blue light that is usually associated with each stations location. A station may be located on a pole, wall, or other devise that is considered an easily accessible area. Although each system carries different accessories, the standard between all Blue Light Emergency Stations is one to three activation buttons (Panic, Information, and directions), a full duplex (simultaneous two way speaking / listening) monitor/microphone, and a Blue flashing or rotating light. These systems are generally set up on a direct connect to a 24/7 live dispatch service … either security or police.
BNCVideo connector, the most commonly used video connector in the CCTV industry.
BOCABuilding Officials and Code Administrators International
BollardA bollard is any object that is used to confine traffic within or from a given area. They are vertical members made of wood, steel or concrete which are permanently placed.
BoltThe part of a lock which, when actuated, is projected (or "thrown") from the lock into a retaining member, such as a strike plate, to prevent a door or window from moving or opening. See also dead bolt, flush bolt, and latch.
Boundary Penetration SensorsInterior intrusion detection sensors which detect an attempt by individuals to penetrate or enter a building.
Breadcrumb TrailThis term has two distinct usages in modern technology. The first relates to GPS tracking systems whereby the location device records positions at set intervals thus leaving a history of the positions of the tracked device. The second usage relates to internet site structure positioning which shows the position of the current page being viewed in relation to the overall structure of the domain. This is useful in tracking progress through a site.
Break AlarmAn alarm signal produced by opening or breaking an electrical circuit. This type of alarm is also called an open circuit alarm.
Break-Wire DetectorAn Intrusion Detection System (IDS) sensor used with screens and grids, open wiring, and grooved stripping in various arrays and configurations necessary to detect surreptitious and forcible penetrations of movable openings, floors, walls, ceilings, and skylights. An alarm is activated when the wire is broken.
BridgingA term indicating that a high impedance video line is paralleled, usually through a switch, to a source of video. A separate overall video output.
Broadcast QualityAn ambiguous term generally used to describe a video signal of high quality. Strictly speaking, however, broadcast quality defines a signal meeting FCC criteria for broadcast. Example: This amateur VHS camcorder footage is not broadcast quality because the quality of the recorded signal is not good enough to merit using it in our video program.
BrownoutA term used to describe conditions whereas the demand upon local power is such that the normal supplied voltage levels drop below the standard. This term was so created from the affect that lights have when operating under voltage specifications … they create a "Brown" environment as opposed to white light.
BSCPThe Building Security Certified Professional (BSCP) certification program was created in 2006 to provide design and security professionals with a credential that demonstrates a comprehensive, multidisciplinary understanding of building security issues. The BSCP has created a database of individuals who have earned their BSCP on this website. Ultimately, the long-term goal of the BSCP program is to integrate security into every stage of the facility life-cycle-planning, design, construction, and operation.
Building EnvelopeThe separation between the interior and the exterior environments of a building. It serves as the outer shell to protect the indoor environment as well as to facilitate its climate control. Building envelope design is a specialized area of architectural and engineering practice that draws from all areas of building science and indoor climate control.
Burglar AlarmAn alarm system that, while armed, is designed to detect and report (1) the presence of one or more unauthorized persons on the protected premises, or (2) an illegal attempt made to enter or to move within the protected premises at one or more points equipped with a sensor.
BurglaryThe unlawful entry of any building, structure, vehicle or vessel, with or without force, with the intent to commit a felony or larceny.
Buried SensorA sensor that detects perimeter intrusion. It is activated when hydraulic pressure in a tube buried near the surface changes as a result of an individual or vehicle passing over the protected area.
Business Burglar Alarm, AudibleA system in a business, institution, or government facility with one or more exterior or interior sounding devices.
Business Burglar Alarm, SilentA system in a business, institution, or government facility that has no sounding devices. A distinctive signaling device intended to provide an early warning signal to the system operator is not considered a sounding device for the purpose of this definition, and the presence of one or more of these signaling devices does not make the system an audible alarm system.
Business ContinuationA program covering disaster recovery and business resumption planning as well as prevention.
Business Continuation Planning (BCP)
Also known as Business Continuity Planning; (1) The process of documenting prevention measures, disaster recovery, business resumption and restoration plans, (2) The development, implementation and maintenance of policies, frameworks and programs to assist agencies manage a business disruption, as well as build agency resilience. It is the capability that assists in preventing, preparing for, responding to, managing and recovering from the impacts of a disruptive event.
Buttress LockA lock that secures a door by wedging a bar between the door and the floor. Some incorporate a moveable steel rod, which fits into metal receiving slots on the door and in the floor. This type of lock is also called a police bolt or police brace.
By-PassA means of removing one or more devices or zones from an alarm system to enable the remainder of the system to be used and to provide protection. Many alarm control units send a special signal to the monitoring facility when any portion of the protection is by-passed to advise that less-than-complete protection is in effect. When the by-passed devices or zones are back to normal and included in the system again, a follow-up advisory signal is transmitted to the monitoring facility.
BypassedCircumvention of an alarm system, rendering it or a portion of it inoperative.
ByteThe smallest addressable unit of digital storage larger than a bit and smaller than a word. A byte now consists of eight bits.
C Mount / CS MountThe two industry standards for mounting a lens on a camera. The C-Mount lens has a 17.5 mm flange back distance. The CS-Mount lens has a 12.5 mm flange back distance.
CACertificate Authority
CACThe Common Access Card is a smart card issued by the US Department of Defense to all military personnel and civilian employees enabling access to a variety of resources. The CAC is a one-card-for-all solution providing the means of physical entry to premises and buildings as well as accessing computer resources. In order to achieve this, computers used to access DoD resources need to have a compatible card reader. The card also enables e-mail encryption.
CAIComputer-assisted instruction - instruction mediated by computer in which the system allows for remediation based on answers but not for a change in the underlying program structure.
Call ListList of user-authorized agents and their telephone numbers, in the order in which the monitoring facility is to follow in attempting to reach someone for notification purposes. Unless otherwise instructed, the notification process stops when one person has been notified.
CameraA device that translates light into a video image and transmits that image to a monitor for viewing. It contains the image sensor and other electronic circuitry to create a video signal.
CANASAEstablished in 1977, the Canadian Security Association (CANASA) is a national not-for-profit organization dedicated to advancing the security industry and supporting security professionals in Canada. CANASA protects and promotes the interests of its members and the safety of all Canadian through education, advocacy, and leadership.
CancellationAn action, or series of actions, taken by an appropriately authorized system operator in order (1) to prevent the monitoring facility from sending an RFR to the PSAP, or (2) to ask the monitoring facility to cancel PSAP follow-up if the RFR has already been sent to the PSAP.
Cancellation of RFRA communication in which the monitoring facility notifies the PSAP that a previously-reported emergency no longer exists.
CapacitanceThe property of two or more objects, which enables them to store electrical energy in an electric field between them. The basic measurement unit is the Farad. Capacitance varies inversely with the distance between the objects, so the change in capacitance with relative motion is greater when one object is nearer to the other.
Capacity SensorA sensor that detects a change in capacitance when a person touches or comes in close proximity to an object, such as a safe or file cabinet, insulated from electrical ground potential.
Card AccessA type of access control system that uses a card with a coded area or strip, on or inside the card, to actuate a lock or other access control device. To activate the device, the card is inserted into or through a slot where the data in the coded area is read. If the code is accepted, a signal will be transmitted to unlock the device or perform some other access control function. See definition of Card Reader for more information on types.
Card KeyA card usually plastic, that contains encoded information to open a locking device.
Card ReaderAn electronic device that reads the information on a card key or various types of media represented by badge technologies (magnetic stripe, capacitance, proximity, Wiegand-effect, etc.). Card readers may obtain data from access cards by reading punched holes, magnetic spots, stripes or wires, or any of several other methods that use punched, embossed, or embedded information. The reader may be an integral part of the lock, or it can be located in the immediate vicinity. Card readers fall in one of two categories, on-line or intelligent. On-line readers must communicate with a central processor that makes the entry/exit decision and transmits a signal back to the locking device. The intelligent card reader compares the data on the card with preprogrammed parameters and entry or exit is granted or denied by the card reader itself at the reader location. Intelligent readers are also called stand-alone or off-line readers.
Cat 5 CableUsed to label a category of communications cabling. The full name is Category 5 cable. There are several different sizes and designs of this data transmission cable. They are in the Category 5 - 8. The cable is made up of 4 independent twisted pairs of wire that are used throughout the computer industry as the standard Ethernet hardwire interconnection structure.
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)The picture tube in a monitor that can reproduce the picture image seen by the camera.
CATV (Cable Access Television)
The method for distributing RF signals via coaxial cable rather than radiated through the air.
CBTComputer-based training - instruction primarily delivered by computer, with a more complicated branching program of remediation and answering.
CCCACSI's Certified Construction Contract Administration (CCCA) certification teaches you to develop, administer and enforce construction documentation.
CCD (Charged Coupled Device)
This is a solid state semi-conductor imaging device often referred to as an integrated circuit, chip or imager. Solid state cameras are sometimes referred to as CCD cameras.
CCIRThe European TV standard 625 lines 50 fields.
CCSA CSI Certified Construction Specifier (CCS) is a skilled product researcher who knows how to investigate and identify cost-effective, efficient solutions, and then communicate those solutions through the specifications.
CCTVThe common abbreviation for Closed Circuit Television. A private or closed television system, usually hard-wired, used for proprietary purposes and not for public or general broadcast. Often used in security applications in conjunction with access control, general surveillance, motion detection, or alarm assessment.
CD-ROMCompact Disk-Read Only Memory. Is a laser-read storage media for data, video and audio disks
CDTCSI's Construction Documents Technology - the CDT program has provided foundation training in construction documentation for architects, contractors, contract administrators, specifiers, and manufacturers' representatives for decades. As the cornerstone of CSI's certification program, it's also prerequisite to CSI's advanced certification exams: Certified Construction Specifier (CCS), Certified Construction Contract Administrator (CCCA), or Certified Construction Product Representative (CCPR) certification.
CEDIACEDIA, the Custom Electronic Design & Installation Association, is the leading global authority in the $14 billion home technology industry. CEDIA represents 3,500 member companies worldwide and serves more than 22,000 industry professionals that manufacture, design, and integrate goods and services for the connected home.
Central Log Management System
A system which allows the central collection of system event messages (i.e., system logs) from various computing devices.
Central Station(1) An organization or business established for the purpose of monitoring subscribers' alarm systems from a centralized monitoring location rather than at the individual sites. Communication with subscriber alarm systems is generally by telephone line, but may be by wireless or direct wire. The central station notifies police or fire services immediately upon receipt of alarm. All alarms are recorded and investigated. Central stations may utilize WATS lines to extend services on a regional or national basis. (2) The control point of a monitoring system that is normally manned by security personnel and designed to accept all signals from the organization's intrusion detection systems, access control, assessment (CCTV) and security forces to determine threat and issue an appropriate response.
Central Station Alarm Association (CSAA)
The Central Station Alarm Association International (CSAA) is an internationally-recognized non-profit trade association that represents professional monitoring companies that are listed by a CSAA-approved Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory, such as FM Global, Intertek/ETL or UL. CSAA is legally entitled to represent its members before Congress and regulatory agencies on the local, state and federal levels, and other authorities having jurisdiction (AHJs) over the industry. Since its incorporation in 1950, CSAA has served its members' interests through education, online training, meetings and conventions, certification, insurance, and industry standards.
Central Station, Contract, UL/FM-Listed
A monitoring facility that is listed by, and operating according to, standards established UL and or FMRC, but only for monitoring central station alarm systems. Contract central stations may provide their services under direct contract with the end-user, or only under contract to an intermediary organization such as an independent alarm installation and maintenance company.
Central Station, Non-ListedSee Monitoring Facility, Non-UL/FM-listed
Central Station, ProprietarySee Proprietary Monitoring Facility
Central Station, UL/FM-Listed, Full Service
A monitoring facility that is listed by, and operating according to, standards established by UL and or FMRC, and providing installation, maintenance, and support services required for central station alarm systems by UL or FMRC, under the management and responsibility of the monitoring facility.
Central Station, UnlistedSee Monitoring Facility, Non-UL/FM-Listed
Certificated UL Line SecurityA line security alarm that is listed by UL. These systems were formerly referred to as grade "AA", "BB" and "CC" systems in early UL standards documents. See Line Security Alarm.
CertificationFormal procedure by which an accredited or authorized person or agency assesses and verifies (and attests in writing by issuing a certificate) the attributes, characteristics, quality, qualification, or status of individuals or organizations, goods or services, procedures or processes, or events or situations, in accordance with established requirements or standards.
Certified Alarm Technician (CAT) Level I
A professional certification offered by ESA's NTS. To earn Certified Alarm Technician Level I status, students must successfully complete the Certified Alarm Technician course, or the online equivalent, and pass the proctored examination.
Certified Alarm Technician (CAT) Level II
A professional certification offered by ESA's NTS. To earn Certified Alarm Technical Level II status, a student must hold a CAT I or higher certification, have 24 months field experience, successfully complete the Advanced Intrusion Systems course, or the online equivalent, and the Fire Alarm Installation Methods course, or the online equivalent, and pass each course's proctored examination.
Certified Fire Alarm Designer (CFAD) Level III Fire
A professional certification offered by ESA's NTS. To earn Certified Fire Alarm Designer status, a student must hold a CFAT certification or higher, have 36 months field experience, successfully complete the Professional Fire Alarm Design course and pass the proctored examination.
Certified Fire Alarm Technician (CFAT) Level II Fire
A professional certification offered by ESA's NTS. To earn Certified Fire Alarm Technician status, students must hold a CAT I or higher certification, have 24 months field experience, successfully complete the Fire Alarm Installation Methods course, or the online equivalent, and either the Life Safety Code course, or the International Building Code course, and pass the course's proctored examination.
Certified Fraud Examiner (CFE)Issued by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. Since 1988, the Association has been dedicated to educating and certifying qualified individuals (Certified Fraud Examiners) in the highly specialized aspects of fraud detection and prevention. The diverse membership of the Association includes auditors, accountants, fraud investigators, loss prevention specialists, attorneys, educators, criminologists, and other anti-fraud professionals.
Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP)
Information Systems Security Certification Consortium (ISC)2. The CISSP is a certification for information security professionals & for the purpose of recognizing individuals who have distinguished themselves as an experienced, knowledgeable, and proficient information security practitioner. The CISSP certificate also provides a means of identifying those persons who subscribe to a rigorous requirement for maintaining their knowledge and proficiency in the information security profession.
Certified Residential Fire Alarm Inspector (CRFAI)
A professional certification offered by ESA's NTS. To earn Certified Residential Fire Alarm Inspector status, students must successfully complete the Residential Fire Alarm course and pass the proctored examination.
Certified Security Project Manager (CSPM)
A professional certification offered by the Security Industry Association. A Certified Security Project Manager (CSPM) is a professional experienced in managing a security project, which typically entails installing and integrating various components of a security system into a physical building structure.
Certified Security Salesperson (CSS)
A professional certification offered by ESA's NTS. To earn Certified Security Salesperson status, students must successfully complete the Understanding Electronic Security Systems course and the Security Sales Essentials course and pass each course's proctored examination. Those holding a current Certified Alarm Technician Level I certification may earn Certified Security Salesperson status by successfully completing the Security Sales Essentials Training course and passing the proctored examination.
Certified Service Technician (CST)
A professional certification offered by ESA's NTS. To earn Certified Service Technician status, a student must hold a CAT I or higher certification, have 24 months field experience, and successfully complete three courses of study (or the online equivalents): Advanced Intrusion Systems course, Fire Alarm Installation Methods course, and Troubleshooting, Service and Maintenance course; and pass each course's proctored examination.
Certified Systems Integrator (CSI)
A professional certification offered by ESA's NTS. To earn Certified Systems Integrator status, a student must hold a CAT I or higher certification, have 36 months field experience, and successfully complete three courses of study (or the online equivalents): Fire Alarm Installation Methods course, Electronic Access Control course and Video Systems Technologies course; and pass each course's proctored examination.
Change KeyA key that will operate only one lock or group of keyed-alike locks, as distinguished from a master key.
ChannelIn communication, a signal path or section of the electromagnetic spectrum which is uniquely assigned for a particular use.
Chrominance (C)The part of the video signal corresponding to the color information.
CIAConfidentiality, Integrity and Availability
CIFCommon Intermediate Format (CIF) is a standard digital format. CIF formats are defined by their resolution. CIF is based upon the original, computer based VGA monitor at a rate of 640X480 pixels. CIF = 352 X 288, 2CIF = 528 X 432, 4 CIF = 704 X 576, 16 CIF = 1408 X 1152
CISOChief Information Security Officer
ClientAn application or information system that accesses a remote service on another system (known as a host or server).
Cloud ComputingThis term refers to an IT infrastructure that doesn't physically exist within the four walls of an organization. Loosely synonymous with internet technology, cloud computing refers to resources that are in that is to say they exist on a network outside the immediate control of the user. This encompasses such concepts as software-as-a-service and web 2.
Cloud TechnologyCloud Technology: a term that is used to reference technology and software combinations that are provided by various manufacturers and/or groups via the internet as opposed to downloading and installing software applications and/or providing "Black Box" solutions at individual sites. Most cloud technology applications will save the client money upfront while providing equal or more advanced electronic solutions.
CMPCrisis Management Plan
CNPCard Not Present transactions are retail payments that are made without the card holder being present at the point of sale. This usually means telephone sales but is increasingly associated with internet sales transactions. Given the opportunities for fraud that this provides, the card issuers and some independent vendors have come up with anti-fraud measures such as subscriber passwords and card security codes (CSC) which are printed on the card signature panel.
Coaxial CableA type of shielded cable of carrying a wide range of frequencies (video and radio) with very low signal loss.
CoaxitronA term used to describe a particular analog based matrix switching system that supplies both control data to and receives video from PTZ units on a single coaxial cable. These systems were developed to diminish the need for additional data cabling to be run to PTZs. Power for the PTZ and any related heater or fan still requires a separate power line.
Code+1 TriggerA procedure involving the entry of a special data-entry code in which the normal code used to arm or disarm an alarm system is modified slightly to trigger a panic alarm. Due to the relative ease with which false alarms can be generated when this procedure is used, the "Code+1" feature is being used less and less.
Combination LockA keyless lock which requires the turning of a numbered dial to a preset sequence of numbers for the lock to open. It is usually a three position, manipulation resistant, dial type lock, although cipher locks with push buttons are also referred to as combination locks.
CompartmentationA formal system for restricting access to selected activities or information. The establishment and management of an organization so that information about the personnel, internal organization, or activities of one component is made available to any other component only to the extent required for the performance of assigned duties.
Composite VideoThe complete video signal consisting of the video information, the sync pulse and the threshold reference.
Comprehensive TestA test of a system that includes (1) an inspection of the installation, (2) tests to verify that all devices, including sensors, controls, communication equipment, and associated devices function properly, (3) one or more signal transmissions to the monitoring facility, if the system is designed to send such signals, (4) confirmation that the system can operate under designed-for fault conditions, and (5) that the batteries are charged and capable of holding their charge.
Compressed VideoA method currently used to transmit images electronically. Compression of sequences of images is necessary because of the huge volume of digital information inherent in video. For instance, a CD-ROM with a memory capacity of about 650 megabytes can store only 30 seconds of a video segment without video compression. With compression, an approximately 70-minute-long video program can be stored. System by which a vast amount of information contained in a TV picture and its accompanying audio signal is squeezed or compressed into a fraction of its former bandwidth and sent onto a smaller carrier, with some information sacrificed in transmission, resulting in some diminishing of color, clarity and some "ragged" motion. It can be delivered over land lines, broadcast or satellite, but results in many more signals being sent more economically.
CompressionReducing the amount of visual information sent in a signal by only transmitting changes in action.
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
Teaching process in which a computer is utilized to enhance the learning environment by assisting students in gaining mastery over a specific skill.
Computer ConferencingInteractive sessions between networked computers whereby data, documents, and/or video and audio are shared. The term encompasses both data conferencing and desktop video conferencing. Web chat, whiteboards, and web based conferencing may be used in computer conferencing.
Computerized Telephone System (CTS)
A generic term used to describe any telephone system that uses centralized stored program computer technology to provide switched telephone networking features and services. CTSs are commercially referred to by such terms as Computerized Private Branch Exchange (CPBX), Private Branch Exchange (PBX), Private Automatic Branch Exchange (PABX), Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange C Glossary TOC 45 (EABX), Computerized Branch Exchange (CBX), Computerized Key Telephone Systems (CKTS), hybrid key systems, business communications systems, and office communications systems.
Confirmed AlarmSee Verified Alarm
Construction Specification Institute (CSI)
CSI is a national association of more than 13,000 volunteers, including specifiers, architects, engineers, contractors, facility managers, product representatives, manufacturers, owners and others who are experts in building construction and the materials used therein.
ContactA switch that is caused to open or close via a mechanical, electronic, or magnetic switch. In the alarm industry, the most common switch is magnetic.
Continental Automated Buildings Association (CABA)
The Continental Automated Buildings Association (CABA) is a not-for-profit industry association dedicated to the advancement of intelligent home and intelligent building technologies. The organization is supported by an international membership of nearly 400 companies involved in the design, manufacture, installation and retailing of products relating to home automation and building automation. Public organizations, including utilities and government are also members.
Contingency PlanPlan maintained for emergency response, backup operations, and post-disaster recovery for an information system, to ensure the availability of critical resources and facilitate the continuity of operations in an emergency situation. Contingency plans are often based on risk assessments, the availability of human and material resources, community preparedness, and local and international response capabilities.
ContrastThe range of light and dark values in a picture or the ratio between the maximum and minimum brightness values.
Control UnitThe nerve center of the alarm system located on the premises.
Controlled BuildingA building to which entry is subject to restrictions or control for security reasons.
COOPContinuity of Operations Plan
CPPThe Certified Protection Professional (CPP) credential provides demonstrable proof of knowledge and management skills in eight key domains of security. Those who earn the CPP are ASIS board-certified in security management. For years the world has recognized a need for competent professionals who can effectively manage complex security issues that threaten people and the assets of corporations, governments, and public and private institutions. As the emphasis on protecting people, property, and information increases, it has strengthened the demand for professional managers. To meet these needs, the ASIS International administers the Certified Protection Professional program.
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)
A multi-disciplinary approach to deterring opportunistic criminal behavior through environmental design using features including natural surveillance (includes direct and indirect presence), access control and territorial reinforcement-that is the design of clear boundaries and use of landscaping features to define desired movement areas and delineate borders.
Crisis Management Plan (CMP)A document defining a communication method and management approach for providing timely, consistent and accurate crisis information to employees, customers and the public.
Cross TalkAn undesired signal that interferes with the desired signal.
CSCThe International Association of Professional Security Consultants has created the Certified Security Consultant designation for professional, independent security consultants. The CSC demonstrates depth of knowledge, professional objectivity, skills as a security consultant, and level of integrity. In keeping with the professionalism of the IAPSC, the CSC qualifications are designed to screen out product-affiliated salesman who call themselves security consultants. The CSC requires a combination of experience and education, as well as independence (professional objectivity) and adherence to a Professional Code of Ethics.
CSIAThe Cyber Security Industry Alliance seeks to establish policies in the US and Europe regarding the privacy of information systems. The group has the objective of establishing legislation in America concerning the protection of consumer data and influencing the EU e-privacy directive.
CSOChief Security Officer. (1) a leadership function responsible for providing comprehensive, integrated risk strategies (policy, procedures, management, training, etc.) to help protect an organization from security threats. (2) a senior executive level function responsible for providing comprehensive, integrated risk strategies (policy, procedures, management, training, etc.) to help protect an organization from a wide spectrum of threats.
CSPCredential Service Provider
CSPMThe Certified Security Project Manager course meets the practical aspects of designing and managing security projects. It requires prospective candidates to demonstrate their ability and skills in implementing the concepts and tools of professional project management. This intensive program consists of several steps, examinations and demonstration of practical experience. The training course includes a 4-day instructor-led program. This program is offered by the Security Industry Association (SIA).
Data Transmission NotificationComputer-to-computer or computer-to-printer transmission of an RFR between a monitoring facility and a terminal at the PSAP. The receiving terminal may be connected into a PSAP's computer aided dispatch system.
Day/Night CameraA camera that is specially designed to provide a full color image during bright light situations and black/white images under lower light situations.
DBSDirect broadcast satellite from the satellite transponder straight to home or viewing site.
DC Type LensAn auto-iris lens with internal circuit which receives voltage and a video signal from the camera to adjust the lens.
DDSDigital Direct Satellite
Dead BoltA lock bolt with no spring action, usually activated by a key or turn knob and that cannot be moved by end pressure.
Dead LatchA spring-actuated latch bolt having a beveled end and incorporating a feature that automatically locks the projected latch bolt against return by end pressure.
Deadbolt LockA lock that uses strong metal components that cannot be easily forced. Deadbolt locks are available in single and double configuration; double deadbolts may be locked from either side of a door.
Deadlocking Panic HardwareA panic hardware with a deadlocking latch. The latch has a device that, when in the closed position, resists the latch from being retracted.
Decibel (Db)A measure of the power ratio of two signals. It is equal to ten times the logarithm of the ratio of the two signals.
Dedicated CircuitA direct and permanent link, which does not depend on the public switched network, between the monitoring facility and the PSAP.
Dedicated Line(1) A power or transmission line with a single function, such as data transmission, or to a single source such as an outlet for a computer. (2) A non-shared telephone line to an individual subscriber from a central station.
DegaussTo reduce the magnetization to zero by applying a reverse (coercive) magnetizing force, commonly referred to as demagnetizing. To reduce the correlation between previous and present data to a point that there is no known technique for recovery of the previous data.
DelayA time interval, measured by an electronic circuit, used to provide a desired alarm feature such as entry/exit delay.
Delay ZoneOne or more sensors in an alarm circuit that are wired so that, when triggered, a specific time delay results before an alarm condition is generated. Delay zones are often created for the most frequently used exit and entry doors to allow for sufficient time for normal entry and exit without causing alarm conditions.
DelegateA person authorised by another person to act on their behalf.
Depth of FieldThe area in focus in front of and behind the subject.
DesignCreative, disciplined and decision-oriented inquiry that aims to: 1) formulate and clarify ideas and images of alternative desired states of a system, 2) prepare descriptions, representatives or "models" of the system, 3) devise a plan for the development and implementation of the selected (most promising) model
Desktop PublishingPrograms that enable the user to use a microcomputer and a laser printer to produce relatively high-quality publications. Utilization of microcomputer-based technology for the preparation of printed materials. Example: Using Adobe Pagemaker or In Design to design and lay out a newsletter for printing.
DetectorAny device that senses the presence of an intruder, an intrusion attempt, fire, etc.
DeterrentAny physical or psychological device or method that discourages action. In the physical security arena, locks or window grills are physical deterrents and the presence of a guard or surveillance camera are psychological deterrents.
DewarpingA software process that makes panoramic images more usable for the human eye.
DHCPThe Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) provides a framework for passing configuration information to hosts on a TCPIP network. DHCP allows a computer to join an IP-based network without having a pre-configured IP address. DHCP assigns unique IP addresses to devices, then releases and renews these addresses as devices leave and re-join the network. DHCP parameters include the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway and DNS addresses.
Dial-Up NetworkThe public dial-up telephone network used to establish a temporary link between the monitoring facility and the PSAP. Serves voice and data communication needs.
DigitalA method of recording, transmitting, or reproducing sound, pictures (video), or other material by sampling an analog signal and translating those samples into digital information, or data. The digital signal, as opposed to an analog signal, bears no resemblance to its original form unless it is converted back into analog form. Example: Unlike with my old phonograph, the musical information on my CDs is a bunch of binary data that bears no resemblance to the sound waves that were present in the studio and picked up by the microphone.
Digital RecordingRecording images on digital mediums such as optical or hard drives instead of analog tapes.
Digital SignalsAudio/video signals that are discrete points of data--representing the future of video products and transmission, which perform transmission tasks by noting the presence or absence of physical signals in a particular position: this on or off conditions represents binary data
Digital SwitcherA devise that is designed to have multiple digital or data signal inputs with a single or multiple of outputs. Digital switchers are not rated so much as to the number of inputs or outputs but by the bandwidth of the total input or output that they can handle without latency issues or code losses. A digital switcher may be rated for 24 inputs, but only able to handle three if the combined bandwidth of the three inputs (at peak demand) meet or exceed the switcher's bandwidth handling ratings.
Digital VideoDigital video is the technology of storing and transmitting CCTV images in digital format using IP networking. Video images are digitally encoded using standard CODECS such as Motion JPEG, M-PEG4 or H.264 and transmitted over IP networks and stored. With Digital video, the video stream is digital and not simply the recording medium. By comparison, for example, DVR technology is a digital recording medium and doesn't imply that the video stream is digital.
Digital Video Interactive (DVI)A format for recording digital video onto compact disc allowing for compression and full motion video.
Digital ZoomingA feature that is afforded to various Mega-Pixel cameras and/or controlling software packages that allows the viewer or operator to "Zoom" into the live or recorded image without the use of mechanical optics and/or other associated devises.
DigitizerDevice that converts a picture into data that can be stored, manipulated, shown on a monitor or printed out.
Direct ConnectAn alarm system that transmits signals directly to alarm receiving equipment at a PSAP. This term generally refers to burglar and hold-up alarm systems. See also Remote Station.
Direct LineSee Dedicated Circuit
Disarm, Turn OffA procedure followed by a system user to turn off an alarm system so that no alarm signals will be transmitted to the monitoring facility, nor will any audible or visual signal be generated at the alarm system location. If a system is dis-armed within a pre-determined time period after a sensor has been triggered (typically referred to as a delay period), it may be possible to abort the alarm and prevent it from being transmitted to the monitoring facility.
Disaster RecoveryThe ability to respond to an interruption in services by implementing a disaster recovery plan to restore an organization's critical business functions.
Disaster Recovery Plan (DRP)(1) A document that defines the resources, actions, tasks and data required to recover information assets in the event of a business interruption. (2) Planning and implementation of procedures for the recovery of essential systems that have a significant impact on an agency's ability to deliver its key outcomes.
Dispatch Agency, PrivateA private dispatch agency sends and directs alarm investigators or private guards which may be part of the dispatch agency organization. Private dispatch agencies may be notified by a monitoring facility when municipal emergency personnel do not respond to alarm calls, or when municipal response is deemed to be too slow or unreliable by the alarm user.
Dispatch Agency, PublicA public dispatch agency that sends and directs municipal police, fire, and emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. The dispatch agency is notified by the monitoring facility when a received alarm signal has been determined to warrant investigation. Public dispatch agencies are known by a variety of names, including 9-1-1, PSAP, ECC, and police, fire, and EMS dispatch.
Dispatchable EventAn unexpected alarm that triggers an event. An alarm does not become a dispatchable event until the monitoring facility has followed its established procedures such as verification or other confirmation that the alarm requires further action. Subsequent signals from the same type of alarm system are part of the original dispatchable event until the event is resolved and the system has been reset. When an alarm is determined to be a dispatchable event, a request for response (RFR) is made to the appropriate response agency or agencies.
DisplayPresent a camera image on a monitor with an alert.
Distance EducationSubset of distance learning that includes evaluation by distance educators and two-way communication with them which usually includes the structuring of media content and use by the educator.
Distance EducationThe process of providing instruction when students and instructors are separated by physical distance and technology, often in tandem with face-to-face communication, is used to bridge the gap.
Distance LearningThe desired outcome of distance education.
Distribution AmplifierA device that accepts a video signal and sends it out over a number of independent outputs.
DNSDomain Naming Service
DOD (DD)Department of Defense
Dome CameraDome cameras are either ceiling mounted or suspended from a wall mounted bracket depending on the application or the field of view required. The camera unit is mounted inside a transparent dome which can be tinted to obscure the camera position. Dome cameras come in a wide variety of forms. They can be analogue or IP, fixed or mobile. PTZ domes can rotate (pan), incline (tilt) or focus closer on objects of interest (zoom). The cameras can by thermal for night vision or be equipped with infrared illuminators or they can be for daytime use only.
Door SwitchA sensor that detects the open or closed condition of a door or gate.
Double-Action TriggerA sensor that requires separate simultaneous actions, or closely-spaced sequential actions before an alarm is transmitted to the monitoring facility. If only one action is taken, a trouble signal may be transmitted or logged and annunciated.
Downlink/UplinkPrograms are "uplinked" to the satellite transponder, and "downlinked" to the ground receiving dish.
DownloadUsing the network to transfer files from one computer to another.
DRPDisaster Recovery Plan
Dry-Pipe Flow SensorA sensor that detects the flow of water in a dry-pipe sprinkler system.
Dual-Technology TriggerA sensor that uses two or more separate technologies, at least two of which must sense the designated condition before the device triggers an alarm signal. If only one technology senses the condition, a trouble signal may be transmitted or logged and annunciated.
Duplex MultiplexorA multiplexor with two frame stores allowing it to show multi-screen pictures while performing time multiplex recordings.
Duress Alarm(1) An alarm condition that signals a dangerous situation, such as an intruder. Often unobtrusive sensors so as to not place the victim in greater danger trigger these alarms. Duress alarms are usually designed to silently initiate an alarm, which is annunciated at a remote station or guard post. (2) A sensor used in a duress-sensing capacity.
DVMSDigital Video Management System (DVMS) is a proprietary term that is used to describe a digital management / storage system. These systems tend to be limited to smaller, less demanding systems as they do not have the power in their CPUs to handle massive data effectively.
DVRDigital Video Recorders are the equivalent of older multiplexers and video cassette recording systems for surveillance requirements. They allow multiple camera recording capabilities and non-linear playback facilities with all recordings being placed on computer hard disk arrays. However, despite their name, DVRs are used for recording analogue video images and are unsuitable for digital IP camera networks and therefore suffer from the disadvantages of analogue recording environments.
Dwell TimeThe length of time a switcher displays a camera before moving on to the next one in the sequence.
E-mailElectronic mail sent via computer to other networked computers. The system whereby messages are automatically passed from one computer user to another through computer networks. Most e-mail systems allow "attachments" of files of different formats to be sent along with the text in the message body.
Early Morning SwitchA device, or a combination of devices, arranged to permit an alarm user, during a normal opening and alarm system disarming process, to send an emergency signal to a monitoring facility, indicating that the person is in a duress situation. The procedures involved in activating the Early Morning Switch are designed to conceal from the criminal that any procedure other than the normal and valid one is being followed.
Early OpeningThe burglar alarm system has been disarmed earlier than the established opening time for that alarm system. Early opening is an access control and recording function.
Edge DeviseA devise or piece of hardware such as a camera that is installed at the farthest outside "Edge" of the system but has software commands or programs burned onto its firmware allowing the devise to make decisions of operation without confirmation or instruction from the Head end. These devises are used to conserve bandwidth on the network and/or to increase the general or specific responses of the system as a whole.
EDIElectronic Data Interchange
EI (Electronic Iris) ShutterThe ability of the camera to compensate for moderate light changes in indoor applications without the use of an auto iris lens.
EIA (Electronic Industry Association)
US TV standard 525 lines 60 fields.
Electric StrikeAn electronic locking device that is installed in the door jam or frame of a door. The unit is activated via numerous different techniques, but allows a door to be locked until an individual is "Buzzed" or "Clicked" … a term that comes from the noise associated with such locks when activated.
Electromagnetic LockA door lock that uses an electrically actuated magnetic attraction to secure the door. Magnetic locks use no moving parts.
Electronic Access Control System (EACS)
An electronic system to control access to agency facilities which includes access control devices, control panel, monitoring station and the policies and procedures to limit access to personnel with verified identities.
Electronic Security Association (ESA)
ESA, a non-profit 501(c) 6 trade association, is the nation's oldest and largest organization dedicated to representing, promoting and supporting the electronic life safety, security and systems industry. More than 2,500 electronic life safety, security and systems businesses in all 50 states and four U.S. territories hold membership in ESA. Member companies specialize in a wide spectrum of services to commercial and residential consumers, including security and fire alarms, video surveillance, access control and monitoring. In cooperation with a federation of state associations, ESA provides government advocacy and delivers timely information, professional development tools, products and services that members use to grow and prosper their businesses. ESA used to be called the National Burglar and Fire Alarm Association (NBFAA).
Emergency Communication Center (ECC)
See Public Safety Answering Point
Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Dispatch
An agency that dispatches emergency medical or ambulance personnel.
Emergency Response PersonnelEmployees of public agencies or private organizations which train their employees to respond to alarms. These include police, fire, EMS, and ambulance personnel, private security agency employees, and alarm company or monitoring facility alarm investigators.
Emergency Response Support Personnel
Persons who provide support or assistance to the first person to arrive at the location from which an alarm signal has been received. Such personnel are employees of public agencies or private organizations which train their employees to respond to alarms. These include police, fire, EMS, and ambulance personnel, private security agency employees, and alarm company or monitoring facility alarm investigators.
Employment ScreeningScreening undertaken by an agency prior to employment of staff or engagement of contractors to meet agency suitability criteria.
EncoderA device that translates analog signals into digital formats for transmission, storage, or general access via digital based equipment.
EncryptA process of transforming information (called plaintext) using a cryptographic algorithm (called a cipher) to make it unintelligible information (called ciphertext) except to authorized users with special knowledge (called a key) to decrypt the information back into plaintext.
End-userUltimate consumer of a service.
EPOEmergency Power Off. Sometimes called the "big red button" which can shut off power to the entire data center when an emergency occurs (or when it's pressed by mistake).
EqualizationThe process of correcting losses of certain components in a signal.
ESSElectronic Safety and Security Certification. The convergence of security systems like access control and surveillance onto the network places much of the responsibility for future security designs into the hands of information technology systems (ITS) professionals. ESS Designer candidates are tested on their ability to understand and apply a vast collection of ESS technology and design information. Those awarded the ESS designation will demonstrate knowledge in principles of security; ESS design process; access control; surveillance systems; intrusion detection systems; fire detection and alarm systems; notification, communication and display devices; special systems; network security; ESS system integration; project management, and; systems operation and commissioning. This program is administered by BICSI.
ESXESX (Electronic Security Expo) brings together professionals who are passionate about the business of electronic security and life safety. Dealers, integrators and monitoring professionals attend ESX to connect with like-minded peers, learn from business thought leaders, and discover emerging trends and technologies. Exceptional peer-to-peer education delivers strategies that help professionals run, grow, and maximize their businesses as well as rethink the future. Dynamic networking events offer security and life safety professionals opportunities to engage and collaborate. The vibrant exhibit hall showcases the latest products, technologies, and services for homes, businesses, and governmental entities. ESX is an ideal venue for manufacturers, distributors and service providers to get business done with decision makers from electronic security and life safety companies.
EthernetA common standard for connecting computers into a local area network (LAN).
Expo SeguridadThe annual Expo Seguridad Mexico and Mexico Safety Expo events feature more than 350 exhibitors and attracts close to 14,000 security and safety professionals. Expo Seguridad Mexico, Mexico Safety Expo, ISC and ISC Brazil will collaborate on the development of world-class content and customer value for exhibitors and visitors by extending strong customer relationships across borders. Both Expo Seguridad Mexico's and Mexico Safety Expo's established strategic partnerships and knowledge of the Latin American marketplace will provide an additional gateway for North American, Central and South American physical security and safety sectors.
External Integrated System (EIS)
A system that may be integrated or interoperable with a Security Alarm System, e.g. CCTV, building management systems, EACS.
External SyncThe ability of CCTV equipment to accept one or more of the standard sync formats so as to align itself to the rest of the system.
Extranet(1) A network based on standardized internet protocols belonging to one (or more) organization(s) for conducting business and/or sharing information with business partners, vendors/suppliers, customers or other authorized individuals. An extranet's web sites look and act just like any other public internet web sites, but the security perimeters surrounding an extranet make it inaccessible to the general public. (2) A Web site for customers rather than the general public; uses the public Internet as its transmission system, but requires passwords to gain entrance.
F-StopThe speed of a lens. The smaller the f-number, the greater amount of light passing through the lens.
Facial RecognitionA term used to describe an electronic solution to review various images of individuals for the purpose of comparing them to a known or created data base for individual alerts and/or as a method of enhanced security in high risk entry positions.
Facility Control SystemA system that provides access to authorized persons, and may also record and report (1) which persons entered or left the facility or areas within the facility, (2) which doors or areas were accessed while within the facility, and (3) the time that each event occurred. A facility control system may also include access control equipment such as keys, access cards, locks, card reader, biometric identification devices, recorders, printers, and control equipment. Identifying, logging, and supervising persons who arm and disarm a burglar alarm system (commonly referred to as opening and closing) are also Facility Control System functions.
Fail-SafeA term used to describe an electric strike that is designed to "unlock" during power-outage and/or alarm intervention allowing for ingress and/or egress.
Fail-SecureA term used to describe an electric strike that is designed to "lock" during power-outage and/or alarm intervention allowing for egress, but not ingress.
Falling DetectionFalling Detection is a feature that is offered by some management software systems. It is a feature that is made available through simple video motion detection processes and basically looks for an object (person) the moves quickly or slowly from a vertical position to a horizontal position as in a fall.
False AlarmAn alarm signal that does not represent a dangerous or unwanted condition, usually caused by some fault or problem in the system.
False Alarm PercentageA number that represents false alarms as a percentage of all RFRs received by a PSAP. This number takes into consideration only the systems that have careless users or system problems. It totally ignores the thousands of alarm systems that never generate a false alarm. A far more significant index of alarm performance is the ASY.
Fault-line AttackAn attack that exploits gaps in security coverage to gain access to a system or facility.
Fence SensorA seismic, vibration, shock, taut-wire, or other sensor that detects attempts to penetrate or climb over a fence. In some instances, fences are backed up by exterior motion sensors.
Fiber Optic BackboneA term referring to the main cabling system structure for the point to point LAN.
Fiber OpticsNewer, high-tech delivery system using attenuated glass (quartz) fiber hardly thicker than a human hair, which conducts light from a laser source. A single glass fiber can carry the equivalent of 100 channels of television or 100,000 telephone calls, with even more capacity possible by encasing many fibers within a cable. Developed by Bell labs and Corning in the later 1960s, it offers many advantages carries tremendous amount of data at high transmission speeds, does not experience signal degradation over distance as does coaxial cable, and is a multipurpose video/radio/phone/digital computer data system.
FieldOne half of a frame of video (262.5 scan lines).
Field of ViewThe maximum viewed image a lens "sees". The horizontal or vertical scene size at a given distance from the camera.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)A protocol that allows you to move files from a distant computer to a local computer using a network like the Internet.
Fire AlarmA system that detects and reports a fire in the protected premises, detects and reports water flowing in a sprinkler system, or detects and reports dangerous conditions such as smoke or overheated materials that may combust spon-taneously.
Fire DispatchAn agency that dispatches fire department personnel. Frequently the same group that also dispatches EMS personnel.
Fire-Pump Running SwitchA sensor that detects the operation of a fire pump in a sprinkler system. Note: When a fire pump is running there is often an assumption of a fire because the fire pump moves large volumes of water through a limited pipe capacity.
FirewallA program or device designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a network or system.
First ResponderA member of an emergency service who is first on the scene at a disruptive incident. Emergency services include any public or private service that deals with disruptions, such as the initial responding law enforcement officers, other public safety officials, emergency medical personnel, rescuers and/or other emergency response service providers.
Fixed CameraA camera without PTZ capabilities; it is fixed in place with one specific view.
Fixed Temperature SensorA heat sensor that is triggered when a pre-determined temperature has been reached at the sensor.
Fixed UnitA camera without PTZ capabilities; it is fixed in place with one specific view.
Flame DetectorA sensor that "sees" the flicker of light emanating from a fire.
Flange BackThe distance from the flange of the lens to the focal plane.
Floor Master KeyA master key which operates all or most lock cylinders on a particular floor of a building.
FMFactory Mutual
FMRCFactory Mutual Research Corporation
Focal LengthThe distance (in millimeters) from the lens to the surface of the imager. The shorted the distance, the wider the view, the longer the distance, the narrower the view.
FocusThe focal point. An adjustment to the lens optics to improve the images clarity.
FOIAThe Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) provides that any person has the right to request access to federal agency records or information. A FOIA request is a written request for records held or believed to be held by a federal agency. The public may submit a FOIA request.
FoilAn electrically conductive ribbon used for a sensing circuit. Foil is normally between 0.001 and 0.0003 inch in thickness, and from 0.125 to 1.0 inch in width. It is commonly used on windows and other glass applications. The metal strip completes an electrical circuit that if broken, causes an alarm condition. Also called tape.
Follow-up NotificationMonitoring facility provides information to the PSAP, after an initial RFR, about (1) additional sensors at the protected premises reporting emergency conditions, (2) when a key holder is expected to arrive, (3) cancellation of an RFR, (4) the arrival of an alarm investigator or guard company representative, or (5) the confirmed alarm emergency reported by an alarm investigator or guard company representative from the user's premises.
Foot Candle (FC)A measurement of light. 1 lumen per square foot.
Foot RailA sensor that can be activated by a person's foot to trigger a hold-up alarm signal.
Foot-BarA form of switch mounted on the floor which is triggered by sliding the toe of a foot underneath and pressing up. Used as a covert panic alarm switch for duress situations.
FormatThe size of the cameras imager. Current standards are 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 inches.
FormattedA term that is used to describe a hardware device (hard-drive, USB memory stick, CD, DVD or any other device) after it has been conditioned to recognize and organize data according to the associated system protocol or operating system.
FrameA complete picture. 2 fields of video information.
FraudDishonestly obtaining a benefit or causing a loss by deception or other means.
Full Duplex AudioA term used to describe the capability of having two-way interaction. The intercom system was a full duplex allowing the two individuals to speak to each other.
Full Motion VideoSignal which allows transmission of complete action taking place at the origination site.
Fully Interactive Video(Two way interactive video) Two sites interact with audio and video as if they were co-located.
Furnace Problem SensorA device used to monitor various operations of a heating plant.
Gate (exterior) SwitchA door switch designed for the rugged conditions encountered in the exterior environment of rough use, temperature and moisture extremes, and the loose nature of many gates operating outside.
Gen. LockTo synchronize one piece of equipment to the sync pulses of another. See External Sync.
General AlarmThe notification, often by annunciation, of an evacuation or readiness alert throughout a facility.
GeophoneSee Seismic Sensor
GhostA shadowy or weak image in the received picture, offset to either the right or to the left of the primary image.
GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)
A standard format for compression of images. Images on web pages are commonly stored in the GIF or JPEG formats.
Glass Break DetectorA sensor that detects unique effects of breaking glass.
Grand Master KeyThe key that operates two or more separate groups of locks, which are each operated by different master keys.
Grey ScaleThe number of variations from white to grey to black.
GroundAn electrical connection point that is common to either a metal chassis, a terminal, or a ground bus.
Ground LoopAffects video pictures in the form of a black shadow bar across the screen or as tearing in the top corner of the picture. Caused by different earth potentials in the system.
GUIPronounced GOO-ee. Acronym for graphical user interface. In addition to their visual components, graphical user interfaces also make it easier to move data from one application to another. A true GUI includes standard formats for representing text and graphics. Because the formats are well-defined, different programs that run under a common GUI can share data. This makes it possible, for example, to copy a graph created by a spreadsheet program into a document created by a word processor.
H.264 FormattingH.264 is the upcoming digital format that is being adopted by the IP video industry for the purpose of condensed storage and transmission of video information. Standard video transmission rates average 200 k-bytes p/second/camera bandwidth for CIF transmission. H.264 compression will decrease the required bandwidth to an average of 70 k-bytes p/second/camera for resolutions as high as 16CIF.
HardwiredMethod of controlling camera points using multi-core cables.
HazardA source of potential harm -including threats.
HDVHigh Density Video (HD) is a term used with high resolution cameras, images, or monitors. HD does not imply Mega-pixel (Mpix) technology but complies with the international standards of HDV TV at 1080p (1,080 pixels on a 16:9 screen ratio). Additionally, HD allows for very low bandwidth video streaming and storage.
Head-EndA term used to describe the final location of all electronic operations of a system … e.g.; the command center.
Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) Alarm
A system that reports heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system problems, rather than life-threatening emergencies. Public emergency response or dispatch personnel are not normally contacted when these alarm systems detect a problem; protected property maintenance personnel tend to be notified by the monitoring facility.
Hertz (Hz)Standard measuring unit for frequency measured in cycles per second. Named for Heinrich Hertz, a German physicist.
High Temperature SensorA sensor that detects a higher-than-expected temperature -- often in an unattended industrial process system.
High Water Level SensorA sensor that detects higher-than-expected water or other liquid levels. Example: Rising ground water in the basement of a building.
Hinge DowelA dowel or pin which projects from a door jamb into an opening in the edge of a door at its hinge which prevents removal of the locked door even if the hinges or hinge pins are removed.
HIPAAHealth Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
Holdup Alarm(1) An alarm that originates from a point where holdup protection is required, such as a bank teller window or store cash register. It is usually a silent alarm to protect the cashier. (2) A system that reports the presence of one or more criminals attempting to take goods or funds with implied or actual threat of force.
HomingA term used to describe where a PTZ camera is set-up and programmed to return to a specific view if it has not been accessed for __x__ amount of time. Homing is important in systems where PTZ use may be frequent. Once the Security Officer is finished, the camera system returns the camera to a specific view.
Horizontal ResolutionThe maximum number of individual picture elements that can be distinguished in a single scanning line.
Hot Swappable DrivesA term used to describe computer hard drives that can be removed or installed without shutting down or rebooting the server. Primarily used where down time is critical to operation or data storage.
HouseholdFor purposes of fire alarm system classification, the family living unit in a single-family detached dwelling, single-family attached dwelling, multifamily building and mobile home. The definition excludes common usage areas in multifamily build-ings such as corridors, lobbies, basements, etc.
HTMLHypertext Markup Language. Coding used to publish documents on the World-Wide Web which allows links to information in files on any computer connected to the Internet.
HVACHeating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system.
HypermediaMulti-level interactive computer-based instruction or information management system that includes video, slides, graphics, sound, and other systems controlled through the hypermedia system.
HypertextMulti-level interactive computer-based instruction or information management system. A document which has been marked up to allow a user to select words or pictures within the document, click on them, and connect to further information.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
The protocol used to signify an Internet site is a WWW site, i.e. HTTP is a WWW address.
IACPThe International Association of Chiefs of Police is an organization for senior police officers throughout the world with its membership currently extending to around 90 nations in the world. The IACP operates as a means of sharing information and best practices with the intention of raising policing standards.
IAHSSInternational Association for Healthcare Security & Safety
ICMPInternet Control Message Protocol
Image Burn (Retained Image)
A change produced or in or on a target pickup device (monitor) which remains after the removal of a previously stationary light source.
Image Device (Imager)The detector in the camera, either a tube or CCD solid state device.
IMPIncident Management Plan
ImpedanceThe effective resistance of an electronic circuit to an AC signal.
Incident reportingA scheme whereby security incidents (which can include security infringements, breaches, violations, contacts or approaches) are reported to a central point - this enables the agency to undertake investigations, advise other affected agencies and to collect statistics on its security vulnerabilities.
Industrial Process AlarmA system that provides supervision for a wide variety of commercial and industrial processes, including sump-pump operations, water levels, pressures and temperatures, chemical processes, and special furnace operations, to name but a few. Normally, user employees or sub-contractors are notified when these systems report problems. When detected problems may affect the safety of life or property, regulations may also re-quire notification of an AHJ.
Information security (INFOSEC)All measures used to protect official information from compromise, loss of integrity or unavailability.
Infrared (IR) LightA term used to describe the invisible light that can provide both overt and covert enhancement of low light or dark scenes, giving the camera the ability to see in apparent darkness. Light waves that are beyond the visible light spectrum on the Red side. The spectrum of infrared light that is generally used in the CCTV industry ranges between 800nm and 950nm. The human eye generally stops recognizing the color red at or around the 750nm wavelength.
Infrared Motion DetectorA passive, low power, area protection device that detects a change in ambient temperature within the coverage pattern caused by the movement of a body. Sensor circuitry generates an alarm when a moving object causes a change in radiated energy levels within the coverage area. These units are more sensitive to objects moving across the beam pattern than to objects moving toward the sensor. Also called passive infrared.
Infrared Sensor(1) Passive: detects an intruder by body heat (Infrared Energy), (2) Active: a photoelectric beam that emits infrared to detect an intruder.
Insertion LossThe signal strength loss that occurs when a piece of equipment is inserted into a line.
InspectionA visual survey of the appearance of an alarm installation intended to discover any obvious problems. Typically these might be alarm system wires that have been covered up during building construction or remodeling, loose doors or windows that may cause false alarms during storms, sprinkler risers and controls that may be blocked by merchandise making fire department access difficult or impossible during emergencies, etc. An inspection may include actual tests of alarm system sensors, controls, or transmitters.
Inspection ServiceA service to provide visual surveys of the appearance of alarm installations intended to discover any obvious problems. Typically these might be alarm system wires that may have been covered up during building construction or remodeling, loose doors or windows that may cause false alarms during storms, sprinkler risers and controls that may be blocked by merchandise making fire department access difficult or impossible during emergencies, etc. An inspection may include actual tests of alarm system sensors, controls, or transmitters.
Intensified SensorIntensified Sensors are usually accomplished through the use of 1st, 2nd, or 3rd generation electron exciters. An electron exciter is a device that amplifies the available light up to several million times normal. In as much as light is energy, it is made up of active electrons (one of the smallest parts of an atom). Through the use of electromagnetic fields, very small amounts of light energy are made to move faster or in an excited state and them aimed onto the CCD causing the same effect as having full light levels. Average sensitivities of intensified sensors start at .00001 lux work down to as low as .000001 lux. In comparison, the average sensitivities of standard CCD imagers range between 1 lux to .001 lux.
IntensifierAn electronic device that creates an output image brighter than the input (original) image.
InterlaceA scanning process where every other horizontal line is scanned in one field while the alternate lines are scanned into the next field to produce a complete picture frame.
Internal Sync (Crystal Controlled)
A camera that generates its sync pulses without reference to any other sources. Normally using a crystal controlled oscillator.
International Building Code (IBC)The International Building Code (IBC) is a model building code developed by the International Code Council (ICC). A model building code has no legal status until it is adopted or adapted by government regulation. The IBC provides minimum standards to insure the public safety, health and welfare insofar as they are affected by building construction and to secure safety to life and property from all hazards incident to the occupancy of buildings, structures or premises.
Internet ExplorerWeb Browser software developed by Microsoft.
Intra Spot LensThe "intra-spot" lens was originally developed by Vicon Industries in the 70's as a solution to the sensitively requirements of the Silicon Intensified Tube (SIT) which had a minimum sensitivity of .00002 fc (.00021529 lx). By working with ND filters mounting directly in front of the iris, a lens iris set for f-22 would actually create an f-400. These lenses would later be adapted for everyday use by exterior or interior, auto iris lenses producing an even, cool images under bright settings. These lenses are also referred to as: Spot filter; ND lenses; Filtered lenses.
IntranetA network based on standardized internet protocols belonging to a single organization and accessible only by the organization's members, employees, or others with authorization. An intranet's web sites look and act just like any other public internet web sites, but the security perimeters surrounding an intranet make it inaccessible to the general public.
Intrusion DetectionThe process of detecting actions that attempt to compromise the confidentiality, integrity or availability of an information asset. It can be manual (e.g. log reviews) or automated with a toolset.
Intrusion Detection DeviceTechnology that uses sensors to detect potential or actual physical security breaches.
Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
An automated system that performs Intrusion Detection activities, providing the capability to review larger quantities of data, generate reports and automated alerts as required. IDS has several variations: (1) network-based (inspects network traffic) or host-based (local to a single system, reviews local logs or activity); (2) signature-based (looks for known patterns of malicious activity) or anomaly based (looks for activity outside of an established "normal? baseline).
Ionization DetectorA smoke sensor that detects the invisible gaseous products of combustion.
IPInternet Protocol; The protocol through which information is sent from one computer or mobile device to another via the Internet.
IP SurveillanceIP surveillance can be defined as using the Internet Protocol (IP) standard of communication for the storage, transmission and networking of surveillance images. As IP is an open standard, it enables manufacturers of surveillance equipment to standardize on this protocol providing the market with more flexibility in choosing best-of-breed solutions.
IPSImages per second, a term used to refer to the total number of images either recorded to a hard-drive and/or displayed each second in digital based systems.
IR (Infrared)A range of frequencies lower than visible red light used for covert surveillance or as a low cost wireless video link.
IRCInternet Relay Chat
IrisThe adjustable opening through which light can pass and is regulated.
Iris RecognitionIris recognition is a biometric technology where identification is verified through scanning the person's iris. The technology is favored as a non-contact and non-intrusive method of identification and is widely used in a number of applications including at airports and in the production of secure documentation. Initially, the technology was used for short range scanning but is becoming increasingly viable for long-range scanning applications.
ISCInternational Security Conference - held each year in Las Vegas (West) and New York (East). West is the industry's largest and leading security conference encompassing all of security.
ISDNIntegrated Services Digital Network. A fairly recent offering in the telecommunications industry, ISDN is a dialable, digital service available to most residences and businesses that offers much higher bandwidth than POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service). ISDN lines come in two basic formats, BRI (Basic Rate Interface, capable of 128k of bandwidth, several of which can be aggregated by an Inverse Mux) and PRI (Primary Rate Interface, capable of 1472k bandwidth). Example: We got so tired of waiting for web pages to download over our telephone modem line that we got an ISDN line that's much, much faster.
ISIT CameraAn acronym that stands for "Intensified Silicone Intensified Target". These cameras were designed from the original SIT camera. With a doubled up electron exciter, these cameras had a rated sensitivity of .0000001 fc (.00000107 lx). See SIT Camera for more details.
ISO - International Organization for Standardization
The ISO works with standards institutes from over 150 countries to develop technology and product standards. The ISO is important to the computer industry, since the organization standardizes many of the technologies used by computer hardware and software.
J
JouleThe joule (symbol J), named for James Prescott Joule, is the derived unit of energy in the International System of Units. It is the energy exerted by the force of one newton acting to move an object through a distance of one meter.
JPEGJoint Photographic Experts Group - a standard format for compression of images. Images on web pages are commonly stored in the JPEG or GIF formats.
K
KbpsKilobits per second. Example: The telephone companies commonly use a 64 Kbps channel for digitized, two-way voice conversations.
Key HolderA user, system operator, or authorized user agent who has a key or some other means to access the protected premises in the event that an alarm is received by the monitoring facility, and someone needs to provide police, fire, or EMS personnel access to the protected premises, or to reset the system.
Key Holder Notification ListSee Call List
KeypadThe portion of the arming station containing numbered pushbuttons similar to those on telephones or calculators. These control the arming or disarming of the system. They may also perform other functions.
KeyswitchAn alternate device used to arm or disarm the alarm system, instead of a keypad.
KiloThousand (10 to the 3rd power). Abbreviated "K." Since computer specifications are usually binary numbers, it often refers to the precise value 1,024.
L2TPLayer Two (2) Tunneling Protocol
LANLocal Area Network - a computer network which spans a local area such as a building or campus.
Larceny-TheftThe unlawful taking or attempted taking of property other than a motor vehicle from the possession of another, by stealth, without force and without deceit, with intent to permanently deprive the owner of the property.
Late OpeningThe alarm system has not been disarmed, and there is a time deadline beyond which the user wants to be sure that the premises are occupied. Late opening is an access control and recording system function.
Late-to-Set, Fail-to-Set, Late-to-Close
The alarm system has not been armed by the agreed-on time deadline. Follow-up action by the monitoring facility may be appropriate. Late-to-Set and Fail-to-Set are generally synonymous terms. Late-to-Set, Fail-to-Set and Late-to-Close are access control and recording system functions.
LatencyA term used to describe the time lost between the issuance of an electronic command and the initiation of the command.
LCDAn acronym that stands for Liquid Crystal Display. A form of visual monitor or screen
LDAPLightweight Directory Access Protocol
LEAPLightweight Extensible Access Protocol
Leased LineUsually synonymous with dedicated line. See Dedicated Circuit.
LensA transparent optical component that converges light rays to forma two dimensional image of that object.
Level ControlMain iris control. Used to set the auto-iris circuit to a video level desired by the user. After set-up, the circuit will adjust the iris to maintain this video level in changing lighting conditions. Turning this control towards high will open the iris, towards low will close the iris.
License Plate RecognitionLicense Plate Recognition: a term used to describe an electronic solution to review various images of license plates on vehicles for the purpose of comparing them to a known or created data base for individual alerts and/or as a method of enhanced security in high risk entry positions.
Light MeterA light meter is a device used to measure the amount of light. Light meters are used in the fields of cinematography and scenic design, in order to determine the optimum light level for a scene.
Line Amplifier (Video Line Corrector)
A device to make good the loss of a signal strength and quality due to long cable runs.
Line LockUsed to synchronize the field sync pulses of an AC powered camera to the frequency of the voltage input (line voltage).
Line Security AlarmA system that monitors the integrity of the communication link between the alarm system and the monitoring facility, or between the alarm system and the serving telephone company's nearest switching center.
Line SupervisionA means where a known current is present on the line to the central station. Cutting or shorting the line changes this current, which results in an alarm.
ListservMailing list management software which scans e-mail messages for the words "subscribe" and "unsubscribe" to automatically update the list.
Local AlarmAn alarm that annunciates at the location of a locking device, to discourage or announce intrusion attempts. The alarm usually uses a bell, siren, lighting system or combination of such devices. It usually turns off automatically after a pre-set time, although some require a manual shutoff. A local alarm may also be linked to a central station or other remote location.
LockA piece of equipment used to prevent undesired opening, typically of an aperture (gate, window, building door, vault door, etc.), while still allowing opening by authorized users.
Logical access controlsMeasures used to control access to systems and their information-this could involve using user identifications and authenticators such as passwords.
Login / LogonThe process of presenting an identity (a user id typically) and authentication (a password, token, or other item) to gain access to information systems and resources.
LoopingA term indicating that a high impedance device has been permanently connected in a parallel to a video source. Individual balanced video outputs for each video input.
Loss Prevention Qualified (LPQ)Issued by the Loss Prevention Foundation. This certification is designed to be a benchmark education for entry level loss prevention associates.
Low Temperature SensorA sensor that detects a lower-than-expected temperature. Examples: Unattended industrial process systems, a heated building subject to damage or whose contents are subject to damage due to below-freezing temperature, wet-pipe sprinkler systems, etc.
Low Water Level SensorA sensor that detects lower-than-expected water or other liquid levels. Examples: A sprinkler system tank, a building heating system's boiler, a sprinkler system water reservoir, etc.
LRRA synonym for Long Range Radio
Luminance (Y)The part of the video signal that consists of the monochromatic data.
LuxA unit of measurement for the intensity of light. One foot-candle (FC) = 10 Lux.
MACMandatory Access Control
Magnetic ContactA magnetically operated switch, typically used on doors and windows to detect opening.
Mailing ListA list of e-mail addresses grouped together as an alias such that a message sent to the list goes to the entire group. Some mailing lists are simple "reflectors" which redirect mail sent to them to the list of recipients. Others are "moderated" or filtered by humans. Mailing lists allow members of a class to collaborate on a project without ever needing to meet face-to-face.
MalwareMalicious software designed to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain unauthorized access to computer systems.
MANMetro Area Network
Manual Burglar AlarmSee Hold-Up Alarm and Panic Alarm
Manual Fire Alarm StationA device that permits a fire alarm signal to be triggered manually.
Manual Hold-Up Alarm ButtonA fixed-location or portable device that can be manually activated to initiate a hold-up alarm signal.
Manual Iris LensA lens with a manual adjustment for the iris opening in a fixed position. Generally used for fixed lighting applications.
MatrixA term used to describe an advanced, analog based switching system that combines multiple video inputs, monitor and recorder outputs in programmable and progressive structures.
MATVMultiple Access Television. The method of distributing RF TV signals by broadcasting them through the air.
MbpsMegabits per second. One million bits per second, the digital bandwidth occupied by a signal
Mechanical focus (Back Focus, Racking)
Lenses that ensure the image stays in focus throughout the zoom range.
Medical Emergency (Service) Alarm
A system that reports a medical problem for response by relatives, friends, neighbors, or by a community's EMS personnel, paramedics, or ambulance, depending on arrangements made with the monitoring facility.
Mega-Pixel CameraA term used to refer to a camera that has an imager that is made up of millions of pixel points. Mega Pixel technology allows for extremely wide views with equivalent 4 CIF or better resolution or very tight images with extreme detail allowing for recognition of small objects / individuals at great distances.
MegaPixelMegapixel cameras in the surveillance industry are characterized by high definition imaging based on the density of pixels in the sensor. A 1 megapixel camera has 1 million pixels. As an IP surveillance technology, the advantages of megapixel cameras include image quality, the ability to segment images and zoom on portions of the field of view as well as cover wider fields of view that would otherwise need a greater number of cameras.
Mercury SwitchA set of electrical contacts that are opened or closed as a sphere of liquid mercury encompasses them or is removed from them inside a hermetically sealed enclosure. Usually the enclosure is tilted in one direction to close the switch and in the opposite direction to open it.
MicrophoneA sensor that hears sound within its area of sensitivity. The microphone, or its control circuit, can be adjusted to hear a certain frequency range or require a certain level of sound before sending an alarm transmission to the monitoring facility which can then "listen in" remotely.
Microwave(1) High frequency radio waves that are used for point-to-point transmission of audio, video, and data. A straight line of sight between the sending and receiving antennas is required. Radio frequencies between 1 and 30 Ghz. (2) A motion sensor that detects Doppler pattern shifts when a body moves within its area of sensitivity, using high-frequency microwave energy. The emitted transmissions may penetrate solid building walls, partitions, floors or ceilings.
Microwave SensorAn active intrusion sensor that detects the movement of a person or object through a pattern of microwave energy. Microwave sensors are classified as monostatic, bistatic, or terrain following. Generally, they use the Doppler effect to recognize movement within a protected area. Bistatic sensors operate on a beam break principle. Terrain-following microwave sensors are essentially bistatic sensors with antenna configurations that are not overall line-of-sight. Monostatic sensors are typically designated for indoor use; bistatic and terrain-following sensors are normally used for outdoor applications.
Minimum Object Distance (MOD)
The closest distance a given lens will able to focus upon.
MitigateTo lessen in force or intensity. To mitigate a vulnerability is to take actions that reduce the vulnerability's impact or exposure.
ModemAn electronic device that converts serial data from a computer into an audio signal in order to transmit data over a telephone line.
ModulateTo change or vary some parameter such as varying the amplitude of a signal. A modulator is the circuit that modulates the signal.
Money ClipSee Bill Trap
MonitorA device that converts electronic signals into the video image that was generate by a camera and lens. The picture end of a CCTV system.
Monitored Alarm SystemAn alarm system which reports detected conditions to a monitoring facility. Monitoring facilities are usually located off-site from the protected premises. When a monitoring facility is located within the building or complex that includes the protected premises, the alarm system is called a Proprietary system.
Monitoring FacilityAny organization or agency that watches over alarm receiving equipment and follows up with appropriate actions when alarm and other signals are received. Monitoring facilities are divided into the following categories: 1. Central Station; 2. Central Station, UL/FM-Listed, Full Service; 3. Central Station, Contract, UL/FM-Listed; 4. Central Station, Non-Listed; 5. Central Station, Proprietary; 6. Central Station, Unlisted; 7. Monitoring Facility, Non-UL/FM-Listed; 8. Monitoring Facility, UL/FM-Listed, Full Service; 9. Proprietary Central Station; 10. Proprietary Monitoring Facility; 11. Police/Fire Department Monitoring Facility
Monitoring Facility StructureThe physical structure of the monitoring facility includes the room and associated areas in which the monitoring equipment and monitoring operations personnel are located, and general offices and other support facilities.
Monitoring Facility, Non-UL/FM-Listed
A monitoring facility, or central station, that is not listed by UL or FMRC, the operation of which is not supervised or inspected by either of these nationally-recognized organizations.
Monitoring Facility, UL/FM-Listed, Full Service
See Central Station, UL/FM-Listed, Full Service.
Monitoring Operations RoomThe physical room or rooms that house alarm monitoring equipment, monitoring operations personnel, directly-related equipment and personnel support rooms. This is often referred to as "the central station."
Motion SensorsDevices that detect motion within their range of sensitivity.
MSRPAn acronym that stands for Manufacturer Suggested Retail Price
Multi-factor AuthenticationThe use of two or more authentication factors to validate an identity. Authentication factors are pieces of information unique to an individual and are typically classified as: 1) something the user has (e.g. id card, token, certificate); 2) something the user knows (e.g. password, PIN, phrase or code); 3) something the user is (fingerprint, retinal pattern, voice print, signature, or other biometric identifier); 4 somewhere the user is (GPS coordinates, inside a controlled room). This is commonly referred to as two-factor authentication, because the general practice is to use two of the above four items to identify and authenticate a user.
Multi-Mode FiberMulti-mode optical fiber (multimode fiber or MM fiber or fibre) is a type of optical fiber mostly used for communication over shorter distances, such as within a building or on a campus. Typical multimode links have data rates of 10 Mbit/s to 10 Gbit/s over link lengths of up to 600 meters.
MultimediaAny document which uses multiple forms of communication, such as text, audio, and/or video.
Multiple Sensor AlarmAn alarm generated when at least two separate sensors detect the condition before the alarm is triggered. In some instances, redundant sensors in different system zones must trip before the alarm is triggered. However, activation of one sensor may trigger a trouble or pre-alarm signal. Example: Smoke detectors that are cross-zone-wired so that two or more zones must detect the smoke before an alarm condition is created.
Multiple-Activation TriggerThis is not really a special type of sensor. Rather it is a system-designed feature that requires two or more sequential activations of the sensor before an alarm signal is transmitted to the monitoring facility.
Multiplex (Time Multiplex)Using one carrier to send more than one signal. In video Multiplexors this achieved by sending a different camera output in each successive field or frame of a video signal.
Multiplex NetworkA multi-point analogue data network providing continuous polling by the receiving terminal of control panels at multiple subscriber locations. The polling provides the receiver with reports on the status or status changes of subscriber alarm systems.
Multiplexed ViewA multiplexed video view can be in one of several configurations. The most common is the quad view where four, full, independent images are shown on a single screen simultaneously. Other multiplexed views may involve a single key video view with several smaller ones on one side or the other. Multiplexed video views are used to monitor, multiple, associated views together.
MuxA Multiplexor
N/D (Neutral Density)A filter that attenuates light equally over the whole visible spectrum.
NanometerA unit of measurement equal to 10-9 or one billionth of a unit.
National Association of Security Companies (NASCO)
The National Association of Security Companies (NASCO) is the nation's largest and only trade association for contract security, representing private security companies that employ more than 450,000 of the nation's most highly trained security officers servicing every business sector. NASCO is leading efforts to set meaningful standards for the private security industry and for security officers by proactively advocating for the industry and facilitating networking between industry colleagues, government contacts and security practitioners. NASCO monitors and reports on state and federal legislation and regulations impacting private security services. NASCO maintains the only frequently updated database of state private security regulations; publishes the bi-monthly Security Executive magazine; and facilitates an Annual Contract Security Summit & Hill Day in Washington, D.C.
Near InfraredNear Infrared is a spectrum category used for light waves that fit between the top of the visible red sector of light (750nm) and Infrared light (heat) at 1100nm and higher. The human eye recognizes light waves between 400nm (Violet) and 700nm (Red) known as the "Visible Light Spectrum".
Need-to-KnowRefers to a need to access information based on an operational requirement.
Netscape NavigatorWeb Browser software developed by Netscape.
NetworkA set of nodes, points, or locations which are connected by means of data, voice, and video communications for the purpose of exchanging information. A system of interconnected hardware, software and cabling (or radio, in wireless systems) that enables computers and other devices to communicate and exchange information (e.g. data, voice, video). Networks are often defined by scale or location, e.g. Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), Intranet/Extranet.
Network InfrastructureThe infrastructure used to carry information between workstations and servers or other network devices, e.g. cabling, junction boxes, patch panels, fibre distribution panels and structured wiring enclosures.
Network SwitchNetwork Switch: a device that is used to direct digital communication traffic on a network. The network switch converts continuous digital streaming information into "Packages" and then directs the flow of the packages to the intended recipient on the network. The network switch determines the speed at which a network can transmit and handle information.
NFPANational Fire Protection Association. The mission of the international nonprofit NFPA, established in 1896, is to reduce the worldwide burden of fire and other hazards on the quality of life by providing and advocating consensus codes and standards, research, training, and education. The world's leading advocate of fire prevention and an authoritative source on public safety, NFPA develops, publishes, and disseminates more than 300 consensus codes and standards intended to minimize the possibility and effects of fire and other risks. NFPA membership totals more than 65,000 individuals around the world.
NFPA 101 - Life Safety CodeNFPA's Life Safety Code is the most widely used source for strategies for occupant safety throughout the life cycle of a building. Unique in the field, it is the only document that addresses life safety in both new and existing structures. From egress, sprinklers, and alarms to emergency lighting, smoke barriers, and special hazard protection, the LSC covers it!
NFPA 70: National Electrical Code
Adopted in all 50 states, the NEC is the benchmark for safe electrical design, installation, and inspection to protect people and property from electrical hazards. The NEC addresses the installation of electrical conductors, equipment, and raceways; signaling and communications conductors, equipment, and raceways; and optical fiber cables and raceways in commercial, residential, and industrial occupancies.
NFPA Conference and ExpoThe year's largest and most important event for the fire protection, life safety, and electrical industries is the NFPA Conference & Expo, widely regarded as the most comprehensive event in the industry.
NICETNational Institute for Certification in Engineering Technologies. Since the Institute was founded in 1961, more than 135,000 technicians and technologists have met NICET's rigorous certification criteria, and the number grows rapidly as more employers and local and state governments rely on NICET certification to measure the qualifications of their workforce. The certificate and wallet card issued by NICET serve as a portable credential for certified technicians and technologists who seek to maximize their skills and knowledge and advance in their professions. By employing those workers who have demonstrated their technical mastery, employers can provide their customers higher quality goods and services. And, ultimately, the public enjoys a higher degree of safety and protection.
NISTNational Institute of Standards and Technology
NodeA term used to describe a central junction point for various cabling systems to come together for interface with a main source or server. Such interface points are usually located in accessible areas and employ, locked boxes that are designed to accommodate various switching, power, or network equipment.
NoiseUndesired signal(s) that corrupts the original video signal and may reduce image quality.
Nonessential RecordsRecords or documents which, if irretrievably lost or damaged, will not materially impair the organization's ability to conduct business.
Notification of AuthoritiesSee Request For Response (RFR).
NSIThe National Security Inspectorate covers the whole of the UK security industry and acts as an approvals and accreditation body which ensures the highest standards in intruder alarms, CCTV surveillance, access control, fire systems, guarding and secure transport systems.
NTSNational Training School. Founded in 1985, the Electronic Security Association's National Training School (NTS) is the leading provider of classroom, online courses and certifications for the evolving electronic security and life safety industry.
NTSC (National Television Standards Committee)
NTSC stands for National Television Standards Committee and is the standard for resolution in the USA, Japan, parts of Latin America. The NTSC Standard is 60 fields per second at 525 vertical lines. See EIA
NVRA Network Video Recorder is a device for storing digital CCTV images on an IP network. (For contrast, see DVR). The NVR is therefore a networked computing device and benefits from this in such aspects as location (which is independent of camera or control room location), security and network access and functionality. In this last respect, NVRs can be written to and read from simultaneously thus allowing the viewing and analysis of one stream of video whilst another stream is being written.
OFCOFC, The Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition, is the premier international event for the latest advances in optical communications and networking.
Off-loadA term used to describe the action of transferring large quantities of digital data from one storage medium to another, lesser cost medium. Usually, the device that is used to dump to is not directly a part of the network causing it to be electronically inaccessible from the network.
OffsiteIn another location. It is common practice to store copies of important data off site as part of a disaster recovery program.
OnlineAvailable for immediate use. Example: I tried to get online with my Internet Service Provider, America Online, but I was unsuccessful.
OnsiteAt the current location.
ONVIFThe Open Network Video Interface Forum (ONVIF) is an industry group dedicated to the development of standards relating to open IP video networking enabling the use of compliant products over non-proprietary networks. The focus of the group is on interoperability enabling the use of cameras, storage systems, video analytics products and Video Management Systems from different suppliers on the same network. Founded by Axis Communications, Bosch Security Systems, and Sony Corporation, is established as a non-profit organization to act on behalf of the members to facilitate the development of a global standard for interfaces of IP-based physical security products.
Open ArchitectureA term that references software based programs / products that work with, accept or can be updated to work with multiple manufacturer hardware language protocols or compression standards. A "Closed" Architecture software program / product is one that is limited to minimal protocol opportunities. Open Architecture programs are most desired in large CCTV system because they allow the system to grow or expand over time without limiting the user to specific hardware that may or may not become obsolete.
Open System Interconnection Reference Model (OSI Model)
A framework for layered communications and computer network protocol design. The OSI model divides network architecture into seven layers to manage communication from the application level all the way down to physical media. Control passes directly from one layer to the next with each layer having unique protocols to communicate with the corresponding layer in another host.
Open-Pipe (deluge) Flow SensorA sensor that detects the flow of water in an open-pipe sprinkler system.
Origination SiteThe location from which a teleconference originates.
OS or O/SOperating System
OSHAOccupational Health & Safety Administration
OSIOpen System Interconnection
OSTOperational Support Team
P2PA point to point protocol which allows the direct connection of two computers for the purposes of file sharing or messaging. It is a software protocol analogous to a pipe built in software that establishes a constant connection. This is often used in Instant Messaging applications and compromises the security features built into networks based on other protocols. Many IM users within companies are unaware of the security risks involved and if IM's are not blocked or protected, they form a significant security risk to organizations.
PacketA data unit sent across a network.
Packet Switched NetworkA data transmission network, shared by many users, in which multiple data transmissions can be sent concurrently. The communication paths are supervised and managed by the service-providing telephone company and are generally equipped to provide alternate paths automatically and quickly without interruption of service.
PAL (Phase Alternate Line)Color TV system used in the United Kingdom. See CCIR.
PanSide-to-side movement of a camera (horizontal axis).
Pan StopsPan stops: a term used to describe the switches that control how far a PT unit will swing either left, right, or tilt up or down.
Panic AlarmA system that reports a more general type of perceived emergency, including the presence of one or more unruly or inebriated individuals, unwanted persons trying to gain entry, observed intruders in a private yard or garden area, or a medical emergency. Provides police with little specific information, but is often the only way a user can call for assistance under abnormal conditions.
Panic ButtonA manually-activated device to trigger a panic alarm.
Panoramic CameraIn physical security, a surveillance camera that uses a 180- or 360-degree lens to capture a broad field of view.
Partitioned SystemA burglar alarm system operated from a single control panel which allows two or more areas to be armed and disarmed independently of each other.
Pass CardIssued to users, system operators, and authorized user agents. The card generally lists a pass word or number.
Pass CodeA word or number, issued at the user's request, to identify the user, a system operator, and an authorized user agent to the monitoring facility. The code may be used as part of the arming or disarming procedure.
PassiveA non-powered element of a system.
Passive Infra-RedA motion sensor that detects a change in infra-red energy that typically occurs when a person, pet, or other object moves within the detector's field of sensitivity.
Passive Motion DetectorA device that uses one of several different methods to detect motion in a specified area for the purpose of triggering an event or alarm.
PasswordA secret word or string of characters that is used for authentication, to prove identity or gain access to a resource. The terms access code or pass code are sometimes used when the secret information is entirely numeric.
PBXPrivate Branch Exchange. The telephone network used by an organization to allow a single access number to offer multiple lines to outside callers and to allow internal staff to share a range of external lines.
PCIThe Professional Certified Investigator (PCI) credential provides demonstrable proof of an individual's knowledge and experience in case management, evidence collection, and preparation of reports and testimony to substantiate findings. Those who earn the PCI are ASIS board-certified in investigations.
PCIPayment Card Industry
Peak to PeakThe amplitude difference between the most positive and the most negative incursions of a signal.
PEAPProtected Extended Application Protocol
Perimeter ProtectionA scheme of protection that uses devices to detect intrusion at points of entry into a protected area such as doors, windows, skylights, etc.
PeripheralAn optional device that can enhance a CCTV system. (i.e. quad, VCR, multiplexor, etc...)
Permanent ScheduleA set of time periods during which the alarm system is scheduled to be armed or disarmed. Permanent schedules are access control and recording system functions.
Permission(s)An individual entry in an Access Control List on a resource (e.g. file, folder, share, printer, service) that define rights (e.g. Read, Write, Execute, Delete) that a user, or group of users, has to that resource. Permissions are attributes of a resource, versus privileges, which are attributes of a user and/or system.
Persistence of VisionA term that is used to describe the amount of time that an image is retained by the retina of the eye after it is removed. The brighter or more intense the image, the longer it "Persists" as an image in the mind.
Personnel SecurityThe management of personnel to assist in the protection of an agency's people, information and assets. It includes initial and ongoing screening, and ongoing education and evaluation of personnel.
PGPPretty Good Privacy
Phase AdjustmentThe ability to delay the line locking process so as to align cameras fed from AC voltages on a different phase. See Line Lock.
Photo-Electric BeamA sensor that detects the blocking of a beam of invisible light between two or more points.
Photo-Electric Beam DetectorA smoke sensor that detects the loss of light between a transmitting unit and an accompanying receiving unit, due to the presence of visible smoke between the units.
Photo-Electric DetectorA smoke sensor that detects light reflected off smoke particles in a tiny chamber within the sensor.
Photocell SwitchAn automated switching device that is activated by the introduction of or the removal of light.
Photoelectric AlarmA kind of motion detector that uses a focused beam of light (usually ultraviolet) to detect an intruder. Any interruption in the light path will set off the alarm. The beam is usually aimed so that an intruder would have to break the beam in order to move through the protected area. Sometimes called an electric eye.
PHYSECPhysical Security
Physical Protection Systems (PPS)
The integration of people, procedures, equipment, and technology for the protection of assets.
Physical Response to Alarm SitePhysical response to receipt of a signal from a protected premises is initiated by the monitoring facility when it causes someone to travel to the alarm site. Such a person may be an employee of the monitoring facility, a contract guard or maintenance service organization, or a representative of the alarm user. If appropriate, the monitoring facility may also request response from police, fire, or EMS personnel.
Physical Security(1) That part of security concerned with physical measures designed to safeguard people; to prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, material, and documents; and to safeguard them against a security incident. (2) The application of control procedures as measures to prevent or deter attackers from accessing a facility, resource, or information. It can include items such as physical barriers to gaining access, electronic security and alarm systems, video monitoring, staffed security or other response.
PINPersonal Identification Number
Pinhole LensLens used for applications where the camera must be hidden. A 1/32 or 1/16 inch lens mounted on a camera that is capable of viewing an entire room.
PIPPicture in Picture
PixelThe point of blocked light on a video display screen which creates a bit of the character seen.
PKIPublic Key Infrastructure
Pneumatic Tubing, Heat SensorA heat sensor that detects the expansion of air inside the tubing, resulting from an increase of temperature caused by a fire. This type of heat detector is ideal for use in areas in which no electrical devices should be operating.
POCProof Of Concept is a widely used term to describe the feasibility of an idea. In the field of IT security, a POC is a simulation of the effect of malicious software or the principle of a security solution.
PoEPower over Ethernet is a means of providing electrical energy using standard data communication infrastructure. In the security industry, many networked applications such as access control, alarm systems and cameras are linked to each other and computer systems using TCP/IP technology over standard Ethernet cabling. These devices also need power and so PoE allows power to be supplied to the devices using the same cabling as the data. This is particularly useful for temporary or difficult locations where minimum wiring overhead would be an advantage.
POE SwitchA digital switch with POE capabilities.
Point-to-MultipointTransmission between multiple locations using a bridge.
Point-to-PointTransmission between two locations.
Polarity ReversalA direct connected alarm system that uses polarity reversal to indicate an alarm condition at the monitoring alarm receiving panel. See also Direct Connect.
Police ConnectAn alarm system that reports directly to alarm receiving equipment at a police department. See also Direct Connect.
Police DispatchAn agency that dispatches police.
Police/Fire Department Monitoring Facility
A municipal facility that, in addition to performing other activities, monitors alarm signals received by monitoring equipment that it provides or allows others to provide within the facility. Alarm systems connected to such equipment are called "Direct Connected" or "Remote Station" systems.
PortElectrical interconnection - e.g. on a microcomputer, the point where the printer is plugged into the computer. Can be hardware or software. A hardware port is a physical interface between a computer and other computers or devices (either external or internal to the computer). A software port is a virtual data connection between computer programs used to exchange data.
POSPoint of Sale is a term used to describe interactive data systems that interface data from an automated machine, such as a cash register or ATM machine, onto the video recording for the purpose of secondary documentation of cash transactions. The data information is usually transposed onto the visual transaction.
Post-Event RecordingA featured that is offered by many DVR, NVR and Management Software providers. The feature allows for video information from a camera to be on a programmable continuous, limited loop recording structure. In this manner, a video event can be triggered and the visual information one second to fifteen minutes after the trigger has reset will be stored as part of the actual alarm.
PotentiometerA potentiometer is an instrument for measuring the potential (or voltage) in a circuit. The instrument taps off a fraction of a known voltage from a resistive slide wire and compares it with the unknown voltage by means of a galvanometer. The sliding contact or wiper of the potentiometer is adjusted and the galvanometer briefly connected to both the sliding contact and the unknown potential. The deflection of the galvanometer is observed and the sliding tap adjusted until the galvanometer no longer deflects from zero. At that point the galvanometer draws no current from the unknown source, and the magnitude of voltage can be calculated from the position of the sliding contact.
POTSPlain old telephone service
Power Failure SensorSee Power Off Sensor
Power Off SensorA sensor that detect loss of power. Often this is provided as part of a sprinkler supervisory system that monitors the ability of a fire pump to operate, but is also used to detect loss of power for many other systems requiring continuous power.
PPPA software package which allows a user to have a direct connection to the Internet over a telephone line.
Pre-Event RecordingA featured that is offered by many DVR, NVR and Management Software providers. The feature allows for video information from a camera to be on a programmable continuous, limited loop recording structure. In this manner, a video event can be triggered and the visual information one second to fifteen minutes prior to the trigger will be stored as part of the actual alarm.
Pre-PositioningA term used to describe an automated memory function that allows a camera to be returned to a pre-determined scene or view on command or trigger. Pre-positioning includes presets for the zoom and focus portion of the attached lens as well.
PresetsThe pre-positioning of a pan, tilt, zoom camera by the use of its potentiometer.
Pressure PadA sensor that detects an increase or decrease in pressure (such as a person standing on the pad or an object being removed from the pad).
Preventive MaintenanceRoutine scheduled service work on an alarm system to detect and prevent predictable problems from occurring, such as batteries that lose their ability to retain a charge, smoke detectors that become dirty or blocked, motion detectors whose sensitivity may change with time, switches that may become loose, etc.
Private Guard ServiceA non-public business organization providing trained, armed or unarmed response personnel in uniform. A monitoring facility or a serving alarm company may provide such personnel.
Private Security Officer(1) An individual, in uniform or plain clothes, employed by an organization to protect assets. Also known as a "guard". (2) An individual, other than armored car personnel or a public employee (federal, state, or local government), employed part or full time, in uniform or plain clothes, hired to protect the employing party's assets, ranging from human lives to physical property (the premises and contents). The definition excludes individuals who are not employed in the capacity of a private security officer.
PrivilegeA special role or administrative duty that can be granted to users to perform specific management tasks within a computer system. Privileges are attributes of a user and/or system, versus permissions, which are attributes of a resource.
ProcedureIn an information system, a specific sequence of steps performed to complete one or more processing activities.
Proprietary Central StationSee Proprietary Monitoring Facility
Proprietary Monitoring FacilityA monitoring facility owned and operated by the owner or management of the protected premises or by the owner or management of the building complex in which the alarm system is located.
Proprietary Security(1) - any organization, or department of that organization, that provides full time security officers solely for itself. (2) - typically, a department within a company that provides security services for that company.
Protected AreaThat portion of a premises that is covered by an alarm system.
Protected PremisesThe physical site at which an alarm system is installed and operational.
ProtocolA formal set of standards, rules, or formats for exchanging data that assures uniformity between computers and applications.
Provisional AccessA form of temporary access that can be approved after a person submits all information required for a security clearance, but before the clearance is finalized to allow that person to access security classified information on a limited basis only.
Proximity Alarm SystemSee Capacitance Alarm System.
Proximity SensorsIntrusion detection sensors that change state based on the close distance or contact of a human to the sensor. These sensors often measure the change in capacitance as a human body enters the measured field. See Capacity Sensor.
PSA Security NetworkEstablished in 1974, Professional Security Alliance, Inc. dba PSA Security Network is the world's largest electronic security cooperative. This for-profit organization encompasses more than 200 electronic security systems integrators, aligning them with over 150 vendor partners. Together, the PSA network is responsible for over $2 billion in annual security systems design, installation, integration and maintenance of access control, video surveillance, intrusion detection, fire, and life safety systems.
PSPThe Physical Security Professional (PSP) credential provides demonstrable knowledge and experience in threat assessment and risk analysis; integrated physical security systems; and the appropriate identification, implementation, and ongoing evaluation of security measures. Those who earn the PSP are ASIS board certified in physical security. The physical security examination is targeted to security professionals whose primary responsibility is to conduct threat surveys; design integrated security systems that include equipment, procedures, and people; or install, operate, and maintain those systems. The test consists of multiple-choice questions covering tasks, knowledge, and skills in (a) Physical Security Assessment; (b) Application, Design and Integration of Physical Security Systems, and (c) Implementation of Physical Security Measures.
PSTNPublic Switched Telephone Network - the public telephone network.
PTZ CameraA camera equipped with mobility functions to pan, tilt, and zoom-in on a specific view.
Public Fire Service Communication Center (PFSCC)
Another name for the agency that receives and dispatches RFRs to fire alarm signals received by monitoring facilities.
Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP)
A generic name for a municipal or county emergency communication center (ECC) dispatch agency that directs 9-1-1 or other emergency calls to appropriate police, fire, and EMS agencies and personnel.
Public Switched NetworkSee Dial-up Network
Pull StationSee Manual Fire Alarm Station
QOSQuality of Service
QuadA device that compresses up to 4 video signals and simultaneously displays them on a monitor.
QualitativeExpressible in terms of subjective quality or relative characteristics.
QuantitativeExpressible in terms of, or involving the measurement of, a quantity or amount.
QuicktimeMulti-platform multimedia software developed by Apple that delivers synchronized graphics, sound, video, text and music.
Rack MountAn industrial standard housing 19" wide, its height is measure in units of U (1.75 inches ea).
Rack UnitA unit of rack space is commonly known as a "U" (for example: 1U or 2U), depending on how wide the device is that occupies the space. A typical blade server will take up between 1 and 2 U spaces in the rack. A rack is commonly either 19 inches (482.6 millimeters) or 23 inches (584.2 millimeters), and accommodates several pieces of equipment which are arranged inside. The space offered by one rack unit is 1.75 inches (44.45 millimeters).
Radio Alarm MonitoringMonitoring alarm systems via the use of Long Range Radio.
Radio Frequency (RF)Signals with a repetition rate above audible hearing, but lowed than frequencies associated with heat and light.
Radio NetworkA network of radio transmitters or transceivers capable of sending alarm status messages to one or more radio receivers or transceivers which are at, or in communication with, an alarm monitoring facility or other alarm signal receiving sta-tion.
Radio TransmissionA voice or data communication path between the monitoring facility and a PSAP using an FCC-licensed radio frequency.
RADIUSRemote Authentication Dial In User Service
RAM(1) Random Access Memory. Temporary storage for data and program instructions. (2) A synonym for Radio Alarm Monitoring. See also Radio Network.
Random InterlaceA scanning technique in which there is no external control over the scanning process. There is no fixed relationship between adjacent lines and successive fields.
Range FinderUsed to determine the focal length needed and what the picture will look like on a monitor.
Range of LightThe range of light that a camera may work in refers to the amount of light that is available between dawn to dusk or natural light. Man-made or unnatural light also falls under the "range of light" that a camera may work with, but is considered a different measurement due to the various reactions a CCD may have to different types of manmade light.
RasterThe rectangular patter of scanning lines upon which the picture is produced. The illuminated face of the TV monitor without the information present.
Rate-of-Rise SensorA heat sensor that detects a specific rate-of-temperature increase at the sensor.
RBACRole Based Access Control
RCDDRegistered Communications Distribution Designer Certification. A Registered Communications Distribution Designer (RCDD) is an individual who has demonstrated knowledge in the design, integration and implementation of telecommunications and data communications transport systems and related infrastructure. These individuals are uniquely positioned to create the detailed design of a new system and/or integrate design into an existing structure. The RCDD is one of the highest design credentials in the information technology systems (ITS) industry, recognized worldwide. This program is administered by BICSI.
Real TimeA terminology that refers to the number of frames or images per second that are required to present smooth, free flowing motion. It was originally derived from the amount of time that was required for the recording tape to move from one reel to another in full. With the advent of Digital, the term "Real Time" is presented under various terms according to the application requirements.
Reed SwitchA magnetically-activated, hermetically sealed sensor.
Reflective LightReflective light is the light that is not absorbed by an object or area but is instead reflected. Light waves, in true state are not recognized by the human eye or the camera sensor (CCD). Visible white light is the perfect balance of equal amounts of all colors or wavelengths as measured in nanometers; Red (700nm), Orange (650nm), Yellow (600nm), Green (550nm), Blue (500nm), Indigo (450nm), Violet (400nm). When light strikes various objects certain wavelengths are absorbed and others are reflected. The reflected portion of the white light is measured in foot-candles (fc) or Lux (lx).
Remediate (-tion)The act of correcting a vulnerability or eliminating a threat.
RemoteAt a location other than the primary site.
Remote AccessAccess by users (or information systems) communicating external to an information system security perimeter. Access can be from a remote location or facility, or from within a local site but external to the particular resource accessed.
Remote StationAn alarm system that transmits signals directly to alarm receiving equipment at a PSAP. The "Remote Station" term is generally used for fire alarm systems reporting to fire departments, rather than for burglar or hold-up alarm systems. See also Direct Connect.
Repeater StationSee Satellite Station
Request For Response (RFR)A communication from the monitoring facility to the Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) or Public Fire Service Communication Center (PFSCC) in which the monitoring facility requests that appropriate emergency personnel be dispatched in response to an alarm. An RFR is more than merely a retransmission of the received alarm signal at the monitoring facility. RFRs may be made verbally or digitally via computer-to-computer, or computer-to-printer data transmission. An RFR may also be made to a private response organization.
ResetA return to normal operation for an alarm system that has been in a trouble condition, out of service, or in an alarm condition. When a system has been "reset" it is back in full operation and subsequent signals received from the system will be treated normally. A reset is more than merely the restoration-to-normal of a sensor, or an abort message or call from the user. With a reset event, the system is back in full and normal operation.
Residential Burglar Alarm, Audible
An audible system in a house, apartment, condominium or other dwelling with an interior or exterior sounding device.
Residential Burglar Alarm, SilentA system in a house, apartment, condominium or other dwelling without any sounding devices. A distinctive signaling device intended to provide an early warning signal to the system operator is not considered a sounding device for purposes of this definition, and the presence of one or more of these signaling devices does not make the system an audible alarm system.
Residual RiskThe remaining level of risk after any risk treatments have been implemented.
ResolutionThe clarity of the image on video display screen--three factors influence resolution: lines of resolution (vertical and horizontal); raster scan rate (number of times per second the image on a video screen can be refreshed or "lit up" again); and bandwidth.
Response StatisticsStatistical records of alarms received by monitoring facilities, times of various follow-up actions, and reported causes.
RestoreA system, zone, or sensor that is returned to normal status. This does not necessarily mean that the alarm system is considered to be back to full operating status by the monitoring facility. However, the term tends to be used interchangeably with Reset, and there is no formal or generally-accepted distinction between them.
Restricted AreaA room, office, building, or facility to which access is strictly and tightly controlled. Admittance to a restricted area is limited to personnel assigned to the area or persons who have been specifically authorized access to the area. Visitors to a restricted area and uncleared personnel must be escorted by personnel assigned to the area and all classified and sensitive information must be protected from observation, disclosure, or removal.
Retained ImageA term used to describe a condition of a monitor screen that is "burned" or retaining an image from long-term exposure to the same scene or conditions.
RF (Radio Frequency)Signals with a repetition rate above audible hearing, but lowed than frequencies associated with heat and light.
RFIRadio Frequency Interference. RFI can be caused by devices like neon lights and electric motors and RFI can modulate electric power, called "noise" on the electric power. Normally electric cables are routed away from other cables, grounded, and shielded to help prevent noise from RFI and from EMI (ElectroMagnetic Interference).
Ring-Down CircuitSee Dedicated Circuit
Ring-Down LineA dedicated circuit used for voice communication between the monitoring facility and the PSAP, operating so that when the telephone handset is picked up at either end, the other end rings.
RiskA measure of the exposure to which an organization may be subjected. This is a combination of the likelihood of a threat exploiting a vulnerability, causing a business disruption, and the possible impact or loss that may result from the business disruption. Risk = (probability of event occurring) x (impact of event occurring)
Risk AssessmentThe process of identifying risks to agency operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), agency assets, or individuals by determining the probability of occurrence, the resulting impact, and additional security controls that would mitigate this impact. Part of risk management and incorporates threat and vulnerability analyses.
Risk ManagementThe process of managing risks to agency operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), agency assets, or individuals resulting from the operation of an information system. It includes risk assessment; cost-benefit analysis; the selection, implementation, and assessment of security controls; the formal authorization to operate the system or process; and employment of techniques and procedures for continuous monitoring of the system or process. Risk Management considers effectiveness, efficiency, and constraints due to laws, directives, policies, or regulations.
Risk MitigationThe process of prioritizing, evaluating, and implementing the appropriate risk-reducing controls recommended from the risk assessment process.
Risk TransferenceA method of dealing with risk by choosing to move the activity with risk to another entity. Example: Purchasing insurance against an event; outsourcing activities with unacceptable risks
RobberyThe unlawful taking or attempted taking of property that is in the immediate possession of another by force or threat of force.
Role Based Access Control (RBAC)
An approach to securing access to resources based on the role(s), or job function(s), a user fills in an organization. In RBAC, permissions to resources are assigned to roles, not directly to users. Users acquire (or lose) access when they fill (or leave) a particular role, greatly simplifying provisioning of access.
RollA loss of vertical sync which causes the picture to move up and down on a TV screen.
Rough CostsRough costs are not estimates or quotes. These costs are based upon a "best guess" fee for installed, set-up product as based upon similar sites. Although care is taken for accuracy, rough costs may be +/- actual cost by as much as 30%. Detailed, accurate costs can only be provided once a proper design is provided.
RouterA devise that is designed to route or direct multiple digital signals to specific communication points within a network.
RS232A commonly used computer serial interface.
Runner ServiceSee Alarm Investigator Service
S/N (Signal to Noise Ratio)Measure of the noise levels of a video signal. The higher the number, the better.
SaaS - Security as a Service / Software as a Service
A method of providing security services to customers through software distribution over a network. Today SaaS includes both video surveillance as a service (VSaaS) and access control as a service (ACaaS).
Safe Door SwitchA special sensor that detects the open or closed position of a safe door.
Salvo SwitchingA term used to describe the function of switching between groups of cameras as opposed to individual images. Also used as a trigger response; e.g., a call box on the second floor of the parking garage was activated causing the second level cameras to become active on the assigned surveillance screens as a group as well as the associated stairwells near to the call box.
SANStorage Area Network
Sarbanes-OxleySarbanes-Oxley act represents an array of financial reporting and accountability reforms designed to reduce the level of corporate financial fraud and stipulate responsibilities, disclosure requirements and penalties. The implications on IT are widespread particularly for accounting software for sale in the USA which now requires compliance with the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley act.
SASSecurity alarm system
SatelliteSatellite age began in 1957 with Sputnik, and commercial operations in 1974 with Westar launched by Western Union, and RCA with Satcom. These and other satellites orbit approximately 22,000 miles above earth at speeds coinciding the earth's rotation, thus providing a fixed target for signal transmission and distribution. Each satellite has a number of transponders which receive the signal and bounce it back to earth, where it is received by any of the dish-shaped earth stations (satellite dishes), then transmitted via cable, phone lines, or microwave to its final receiver TV set. The more powerful the transponder, the smaller the dish required to receive it, leading to a new development, direct broadcast satellites. Approved by FCC in 1982, this now permits satellite programming direct to homes, schools, industry. Satellite technology has been a major influence on educational telecommunications and instructional programming, and will likely to be the next major technological step for education, as costs continue to decrease.
Satellite ConferenceA conference between different locations where the communication links are made between orbiting satellites and various points on Earth. Communications satellites provide telephone, television, and data services between widely separated locations such as universities or television stations in different cities. The technique involves the transmission of signals from an Earth station to a satellite. The satellite has equipment that receives the signals, amplifies them, and transmits them to Earth. Receiving stations then pick up the signals and provide the communications link.
Satellite StationA structure, remote from the primary monitoring facility, housing equipment used to gather signals to be forwarded to the primary monitoring facility for processing and response.
Saturation (Color)The measure of the vividness of color. The amplitude of chrominance.
SCAThe Smart Card Alliance is a not-for-profit, multi-industry association working to stimulate the understanding, adoption, use and widespread application of smart card technology. The Alliance invests heavily in education on the appropriate uses of technology for identification, payment and other applications and strongly advocates the use of smart card technology in a way that protects privacy and enhances data security and integrity. Through specific projects such as education programs, market research, advocacy, industry relations and open forums, the Alliance keeps its members connected to industry leaders and innovative thought. The Alliance is the single industry voice for smart card technology, leading industry discussion on the impact and value of smart cards in the U.S. and Latin America.
ScannerA panning only unit.
ScanningThe rapid movement of an electronic beam in a pickup device of a camera or in the CRT of a television receiver. When referring to a video surveillance field, it is the horizontal panning camera motion.
Scheduled TestActivation of one or more sensors (flow switches, motion detectors, door switches, alarm buttons, etc.), controls and communicators, according to a formal arrangement between the user and the testing organization (monitoring facility, serving alarm company, or organization that specializes in system testing), or according to some published requirement of NFPA, AHJ, FMRC, or UL.
SchemaIn computer-ese, the organization of a relational database in its entirety, including names of all data elements and ways records are linked. In learning psychology, the way in which a human processes, store and "recreates" information coming into the brain.
SECAMColor TV system used in France. See CCIR.
Secondary PSAPA dispatch agency that receives calls for services the PSAP or Primary PSAP originally receives but does not dispatch and direct. An example might be when a 9-1-1 center dispatches police on a metropolitan-wide basis, but relays fire calls to individual community fire department dispatch centers. Such centers are then referred to as Secondary PSAPs.
SecurityThe practice of reducing the risk of and the degree of protection against threats exploiting vulnerabilities that could cause an undesirable result (e.g., theft, espionage, sabotage, danger, injury, information breach, etc.)
Security AssessmentThe process of identifying technical computer/network/system security vulnerabilities, as well as weaknesses in policies and practices related to the operation of an information system.
Security Awareness ProgramA clearly and formally defined plan, structured approach, and set of related activities and procedures with the objective of realizing and maintaining a security- aware organizational culture.
Security CultureThe characteristics and attitudes of an agency and individuals that establish security as a high priority, and security risks receive the attention warranted by their impact on operational capability.
Security Industry Association (SIA)
A nonprofit international trade association representing electronic and physical security product manufacturers, specifiers and service providers. SIA promotes growth and professionalism within the security industry by providing education, research, technical standards and representation and defense of its members' interests.
Security PerimeterThe boundary that defines the area of security concern and security policy coverage.
Seismic Glass Break DetectorA glass break detector that senses unique seismic shock frequencies that travel through the glass as it breaks.
Seismic SensorA sensor that detects vibrations generated by a person walking or digging in its area of sensitivity.
SensitivityA camera's ability to reproduce a given scene with a given light level. Usually expressed in Lux or foot-candles.
Sequential AlarmWhen two or more sensors sequentially detect a condition and each triggers an alarm. When this happens, there is a high probability that a real emergency exists.
Sequential SwitchersA video device that alternates the displayed video image from one camera to the next. A video device that sequentially steps through and displays all connected camera signals.
Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
Allows a user to connect to the Internet directly over a high speed modem.
ServerA computer with a special service function on a network, generally receiving and connecting incoming information traffic.
ServerA computer with a special service function on a network, generally receiving and connecting incoming information traffic.
Servicing Alarm CompanyA company that provides on-site service, inspections, tests, training, and related services. A servicing alarm company may, or may not, provide monitoring services.
Serving and Responding Organization
An alarm company that provides a complete line of alarm-related services. These include consulting, system design, sales, installation, service, emergency response, inspections, tests, transmission tests, monitoring, and guard or trained alarm investigator response. Other organizations provide only one or more of these services.
Signal Indicating DeviceA device that provides an audible or visual indication that an emergency condition has been detected. Audible devices include electronic sounders, bells, horns, and sirens. Visual devices include incandescent or strobe lights. Signal indicating devices also include panels that provide lamps or schematic building diagrams to identify the specific location of the sensor or sensors that detected an emergency, or that are in other-than-normal status.
Signal to Noise Ratio (S/N)Measure of the noise levels of a video signal. The higher the number, the better.
Simplex (Multiplexor)A Mux with 1 frame store that can either multiplex record or show multi-screen pictures in live or play back mode. It cannot record multiplexed images while showing a multiplexed mode.
Single Sensor AlarmA sensor detects the emergency condition and causes an alarm to be transmitted to the monitoring facility or to be indicated audibly or visually. Some sensors use single switches to trigger the alarm; other sensors require that two switches activate before the alarm is triggered. Some sensors use two or more detection technologies and require that two or more technologies sense the emergency condition before the alarm is triggered. All of these are single sensors.
Single-Mode FiberSingle-mode optical fiber is an optical fiber designed to carry only a single ray of light (mode). This ray of light often contains a variety of different wavelengths.
SIT CameraAn acronym that stands for "Silicone Intensified Target". These cameras were originally developed by RCA to combat extreme low light levels with CCTV cameras. The SIT Tube works on the principal of using a 1" formatted Ultracon© tube with an Electron Exciter mounted in place of the face plate. Light levels as low as .0002fc (.00021 lx) could still produce a full 1v pp video signal.
SiteThe discrete, separate physical location of an agency's facility(ies).
Site PlanningA determination as to which physical control measures are to be applied at a site to mitigate agency and site specific risks.
SMESubject Matter Expert
Smoke DetectorA sensor that detects the presence of smoke resulting from a fire or a nascent fire.
SnifferSoftware that observes and records network traffic.
Spherical AberrationSpherical aberration is an optical effect observed in an optical device (lens, mirror, etc.) that occurs due to the increased refraction of light rays when they strike a lens or a reflection of light rays when they strike a mirror near its edge, in comparison with those that strike nearer the center. It signifies a deviation of the device from the norm, i.e., it results in an imperfection of the produced image. Spherical aberration should not be confused with barrel distortion; whereas barrel distortion affects the shape of the image, spherical aberration affects its sharpness.
Spot FilterA small insert used in a lens to increase the F-Stop range of the lens.
Sprinkler Control Valve SwitchesA switch that detects the off-normal position of a shut-off control valve in a sprinkler system to warn of a potentially dangerous situation in which water cannot flow through the pipes in case of fire. Three common types of switches are: Gate Switch, Outside Stem & Yoke (OS&Y) Switch and Post Indicator Valve (PIV) Switch
Sprinkler System Water Flow Sensors
A sensor that detects the flow of water in a sprinkler system.
SQLStructured Query Language
SSLSecure Sockets Layer
Starlight CameraA camera that is designed to work in extreme low light conditions, sometimes referred to as an Intensified camera.
Storage MediaAny device that can store (temporarily or permanently) data in an electronic format. Example: Hard Drives, CD?s, DVD?s, Thumb Drives, Floppy Disks, Tape Backups, Volatile and Non-Volatile Memory, Cell Phones, Handheld Devices, printers and copiers
Stored AudioLimited duration recording of audible sounds at the protected premises at the time when an alarm signal is generated. Generally, such recorded audio data can be retrieved immediately after the alarm signal reaches the monitoring facility while the communication link between the protected premises and the monitoring facility remains in place. Stored audio allows the monitoring facility to recall the sounds occurring at about the time the alarm was activated, and shortly thereafter.
Stored VideoLimited duration video recording of conditions at the protected premises at the time when an alarm signal is generated. Generally, such recorded data can be retrieved immediately after the alarm signal reaches the monitoring facility while the communication link between the protected premises and the monitoring facility remains in place. Stored video allows the monitoring facility to view events occurring at about the time the alarm was activated, and shortly thereafter.
StreamingPlaying video or sound in real time as it is downloaded over the Internet. Data is decompressed and played (by use of a web browser plug-in) as it is transferred to your computer over the World Wide Web. Streaming requires a powerful computer and fast connection since the file is not stored on your computer.
Stress SensorAn electronic pressure pad that responds to changes in load.
STS SystemSubscriber Technology Services (STS) is a system developed by Axis Communications to allow immediate, off-site visual storage and access, for small IP based camera solutions at specific major storage centers via simple internet connections. These system work in conjunction with a NAS deck that has had the Axis operational software flashed onto it.
Sub-contractorA contractor who contracts to provide goods or services to another contractor.
SubnetA portion of a network that shares a common address component. On TCP/IP networks, subnets are defined as all devices whose IP addresses have the same prefix. For example, all devices with IP addresses that start with 100.100.100. would be part of the same subnet. Dividing a network into subnets is useful for both security and performance reasons.
Supervisory AlarmSensors that detect conditions which represent potential problems, and which require attention without unnecessary delay in order to prevent a possible emergency from developing.
SVHS (Super Video Home System)
New format high resolution VHS recorders. VHS compatible.
Swinger ShuntA method of by-passing a complete alarm system or a portion of an alarm system to prevent repeated alarm signals from being transmitted by the alarm system before it can be reset. The purpose of a swinger shunt is to prevent false alarms and to prevent unduly loading a communication channel with un-necessary signal volume.
Switched NetworkSee Dial-Up Network
SwitcherSee Sequential Switcher.
SyncAbbreviation for synchronization. Electronic pulses that are inserted into video signal for the purpose of assembling the picture in the correct position.
SynchronousCommunication occurring between parties that are temporally synchronized. That is, communication that occurs between folks at the same time, although not necessarily in the same place. Example: Internet chat is synchronous; email is asynchronous.
System Number (Alarm System ID)
A number or code that uniquely identifies an alarm system to the monitoring facility. One address or location may contain several separate alarm systems, but each system has its own system number. Also, one control panel may represent two or more systems.
System OperatorA person who operates an alarm system. Such person is assumed to have been taught how to arm, or how to arm and disarm the system, and how to prevent alarm signals from being transmitted to the monitoring facility unnecessarily or by mistake. A system operator may, or may not, be an authorized user agent.
T1A general term for a digital carrier, typically leased from a local or long-distance provider, capable of transmitting 1.544 Mbps of electronic information. A T1 line is point to point, as opposed to a dialable ISDN line. T1 lines may be used fractionally or at their full bandwidth. E1 is the approximate European equivalent, prevalent also in Mexico. Example: The UT video network is composed primarily of leased T1 lines that carry compressed video and Internet data between UT components.
Tabletop ExerciseTesting an emergency response plan using a narrative format involving all stakeholders.
TailgatingTo follow closely. In access control, the attempt by more than one individual to enter a controlled area by immediately following an individual with proper access. Also called piggybacking.
Tamper SwitchA switch, usually mechanically operated, used to detect opening of alarm equipment.
Taut-Wire SensorA type of fence sensor using a wire under tension as a sensor. If the wire is cut, the tension is removed. If someone leans against the wire, the tension is increased. Either change in the tension is detected and activates the switch.
TBACTask-Based Access Control
TBC (Time Base Corrector)Electronic circuit that aligns the unsynced video signal before signal processing. Used in Muxs and quads.
TCP/IPTransmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TearingA picture condition in which the horizontal lines are displaced in an irregular manner.
TelemetryA system utilizing control code transmitters and receivers. These use the video cable or a simple twisted pair cable to send their information.
Telemetry ControllerA telemetry controlled system is a system with a Zoom lens controlling system. This device may be a simple devise designed to control a single lens on a single camera or it may be a software based system that allows the operator control multiple motorized zoom lenses individually or simultaneously.
Telephone BridgeComputerized switching system which allows multi-site telephone conferencing.
Telephone Line MonitorA sensor that monitors one or more conditions of a telephone circuit to detect when such a circuit has become incapable of reporting alarm-detected problems to the monitoring facility.
TelephotoA lens used to produce a larger image of a distant object.
Temporary ScheduleTemporary changes in times during which the alarm system is supposed to be armed or disarmed. Temporary schedules are access control and recording system functions.
Terminated (75 Ohm Terminated)
Video Input of a piece of CCTV equipment, wired to be the last in a particular video line.
TestThe act of activating one or more sensors, devices, controls, communicating devices, or other components of an alarm sys-tem in an effort to confirm proper operation of the equipment.
Thin Client TechnologyTechnology which allows remote access to information without storing any information on the host computer.
ThreatA source of harm that is deliberate or has intent to do harm.
Threat AssessmentFormal evaluation and description of the type, scope and nature of events or actions that can result in adverse consequences to an organization or specific assets.
ThroughputIn access control, the rate at which people or vehicles pass through an access point.
Thumb LockA term used for a deadbolt style lock that is keyed on the protected side of the door and has a manual spin release devise on the inside allowing for easy egress in the event of an emergency.
Tie LineSee Dedicated Circuit
Tier 1 StorageFor business-critical 24x7 databases; file servers and email applications; and data warehouses; a redundant, cache-based tiered storage model-called tier 1 storage-is the best option. The tier 1 storage model offers quick response time and fast data transfer rates. As such, tier 1 storage is a great solution for companies that need to effectively store high performance data that demands high availability.
Tier 2 StorageFor seldom-used, non-critical databases-historical data for instance-a tier 2 storage model is a great option since tier 2 data can generally be stored on less expensive media in storage area networks (SAN). Tier 2 storage is a good solution for organizations that have a large amount of data that doesn't require 24x7 availability or extensive backup. Tier 2 storage can also help reduce hardware costs and management overhead.
Tier 3 StorageFor rarely accessed data, a tier 3 storage model offers further economies of scale since data can be stored on even less expensive media such as recordable compact discs. Tier 3 storage is a convenient and simple way for IT administrators to protect large amounts of non-critical data from fire, theft, and computer malfunctions through double and triple redundancy cooling, power and off and on line access systems.
Tier 4 StorageData critical storage that includes Tier 1 - 3 with the added protection of various proven security measures at the storage site including, but not limited to automated video surveillance, biometric access identification, man traps and other physical and electronic intrusion counter measures.
TiltThe up and down (vertical) movement of a camera.
Time and Material (T&M) Service
Service provided for a user who does not have a maintenance agreement or where the service provided is not included in the service contract.
Time Base Corrector (TBC)Electronic circuit that aligns the unsynced video signal before signal processing. Used in Muxs and quads.
Time Delayed Panic BarTerm used to describe a specially designed and programmable push bar release for doors. It has a built in timer that allows the bar to be programmed to delay from 0 seconds to 5 minutes before releasing the lock. These special locking systems can be programmed to release in the event of a fire alarm and/or to electronically signal or to trigger horns or bells in the event of being pushed.
Time ZoneTime intervals during which activity is permitted. Used digital motion setup.
Time-Lapse VCRVideo recorder that can record frames with pauses between them thereby extending the time that a standard cassette will hold.
Time-Out DeviceA separate device or feature built into alarm system control equipment that turns off signal indicating devices after a pre-determined time interval which is deemed adequate to warn occupants of a detected emergency, to scare criminals, or to alert neighbors, public safety personnel, or passers-by. Time-out devices help reduce the nuisance effect of an alarm system on neighbors. Before signal indicating devices can operate again, a manual reset procedure is generally required.
TinfoilA thin electric-current carrying lead tape, applied to glass or other surface that breaks when the surface to which it is applied is violated. (Tinfoil contains no tin.)
TKIPTemporal Key Integrity Protocol
ToggleA term used to explain the action of increasing the number of images being recorded per second and/or the resolution of a recorded image when a specific event trigger is realized.
TokenAn electronically encoded device (i.e., a card, key-fob, etc.) that contains information capable of being read by electronic devices placed within or at the entry and exit points of a protected facility.
TopologyThe physical or logical mapping of the location of networking components or nodes within a network.
TourA term used to describe an automated function of a camera with PTZ capability for a series of pre-programmed positions and views for automatic "touring" on scheduled intervals. Visual tours can be established to be recorded only and done on a regular or sporadic basis.
Tracking (Lens)Tracking is term that used with motorized zoom lenses. It refers to the mechanical attachment between the zoom and focus rings. If the tracking is not properly set up through a detailed back-focus procedure, the image will go out of focus when "zooming out" of a close up image. If the tracking is set properly, the image will stay in perfect focus from a zoomed in position out to a full wide position.
TransceiverA unit that is designed to operate in dual formats acting as both a transmitter and a receiver. Most common applications are of, two wire, and fiber optic units.
Transmission TestVerification of the ability of a system control to send signals to the monitoring facility which it is intended to notify.
TrapSee Trip Wire
Trigger(s)A devise or switch, mechanical or electronic, used to cause specific responses out of the CCTV system, e.g., the contact closed and triggered the lights to come on.
Trip WireA string or wire manually set before the alarm system is armed, that an unsuspecting intruder will knock out of its receiving socket if the trip wire is disturbed.
Triplex (Triplex Multiplexor)Mux feature that gives you the ability to simultaneously view both playback and live cameras within the same multiscreen while still recording.
TroubleA non-emergency condition indicating that the alarm system is inoperative or functioning at less than optimum capability. Trouble conditions may include sensors that have become less sensitive or more susceptible to causing false alarms, or batteries that have deteriorated or are inoperative.
Trouble AdvisorySensor circuits inside control equipment, or devices outside control equipment that detect electrical or mechanical problems of the alarm system as opposed to problems relating to the protected premises.
TVL (Television Lines Resolution)
The maximum number of changes between light and dark pictures across 3/4 the width. Dictates the resolution of a CCTV product.
TWICThe Transportation Worker Identification Credential is a maritime port security program to ensure unaccompanied access to American ports is granted only to those who have been vetted and issued with a card. The card itself is based on biometric parameters including fingerprint and face recognition.
Twisted PairA cable, often screened, that consist of two conductors twisted together along their length.
Twisted Wire, Heat SensorA length of twisted steel wire, separated by thermoplastic insulation designed to melt at temperatures indicative of fire. As the plastic insulation melts, the pressure of the twisted steel wires causes the wires to "short", triggering the fire alarm signal.
UbiquitousExisting or being everywhere at the same time. Example: In American, hamburgers are ubiquitous.
UIDUnique Identifier
ULUnderwriter's Laboratories Inc.
ULCUnderwriter's Laboratories of Canada Ltd.
UltrasonicA motion sensor, similar to a microwave sensor, but one that operates in a lower frequency range in which the emitted transmissions do not penetrate solid building walls, partitions, floors or ceilings.
Ultrasonic DetectorA device that senses motion in a protected area by a Doppler shift in the transmitted ultrasonic energy. The device operates by filling a space with a pattern of ultrasonic waives; the modulation of these waves by a moving object is detected and initiates an alarm signal.
Unterminated (Hi-Z)Video input of a piece of CCTV equipment wired so as to allow the video signal to be fed to further equipment. Does not necessarily include extra sockets for external coaxial cables.
UplinkThe process of sending video, or data, up to a communications satellite, from where it is downlinked to a receiving site. Example: The local PBS station is going to uplink our teleconference so that it will be viewable by anyone with a C-band dish.
UploadA term used in the digital data industry to describe the act of moving digital information (software, images, commands, and etcetera) from a user or storage devise to another devise. "The information was uploaded to the Internet for access by various authorized parties."
UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)
Equipment that supplies power to a system in the event of a primary power loss. It may consist of batteries or an auxiliary generator. UPS systems provide backup power. They monitor the incoming power lines and provide continuous electrical current in the event of a change in voltage. The UPS provides a certain amount of battery backup.
URLUniform Resource Locator. An address on the World Wide Web. Example: The URL for this Primer is: http://www.utexas.edu/cc/cit/de/deprimer/deprimindex.html.
UsenetA distributed electronic bulletin board system which allows users to post and read articles thereon. It is international in scope and is probably the largest decentralized information utility in existence. Newsgroups, postings on Usenet, provide a mechanism for class collaboration and communication.
UserThe person responsible for the correct operation of the alarm system (the boss, the buyer). Not necessarily the person who actually operates the alarm system.
User Representative NotificationNotification provided to authorized user agents upon receipt of, or failure to receive, certain signals, whether or not one or more PSAPs have been notified.
Vandal ProofA term associated with camera domes that are constructed of materials that resist extreme efforts to break or remove the unit.
Varifocal LensSee Zoom lens. Usually not motorized (manual).
Vault Door SwitchA special sensor that detects the open or closed position of a vault door.
VBDSVideo Based Detection System is a term that can be used to describe a number of functions whereby camera surveillance systems are used with analytical capabilities to trigger an alert or some other function such as signaling or alarm activation.
Verbal NotificationA telephone or radio call to the PSAP, to provide RFR information about a detected emergency, the type of emergency, name of the alarm user, address, and other relevant information that the monitoring facility can provide or the PSAP may request.
Verified AlarmAn alarm that has been confirmed by monitoring facility contact with the protected premises or an authorized user agent, an alarm from sequentially detected and reported events, a multiple-sensor detected event, or an alarm reported by a system user.
Vertical Interval SwitchingSequential switchers waiting until the current field has finished before displaying the next camera even though the dwell time has elapsed.
Vertical JiggleA term used to describe an image that jumps up and down slightly.
VextA Mux feature that uses a pulse generated by the VCR so that the MUX automatically adjusts to the VCR time lapse speed.
Vibration DetectionAn alarm system that employs one or more contact microphones and vibration sensors, which are fastened to the surfaces of the area or object being protected to detect excessive levels of vibration. The contact microphone system consists of microphones, a control unit containing an amplifier and an accumulator, and a power supply. The unit's sensitivity is adjustable so that ambient noises or normal vibrations will not initiate an alarm signal.
Vibration SensorA sensor that detects vibrations generated during forced entry or an attempted forced entry.
Video Alarm VerificationSee Visual Alarm Verification
Video AmplifierA devise used to "amplify" weak, analog video signals. Usually required in situations where improper cabling techniques were used between the camera and final switching / recording point.
Video AnalyticsVideo surveillance systems capture activities that require analysis and with the mass proliferation of cameras, there is a corresponding increase in demands on manpower to monitor and analyze images. Video Analytics provides a means using software algorithms to take away an element of manpower and human errors. The software can either reside on a server which receives the images for analysis or on the camera itself. Camera based systems can be linked to decision algorithms which can determine whether to stream video content to a control room or recorder based on the events under analysis.
Video Motion Detection (VMD)
A system that uses the video signal from a camera to determine if there is any movement in the picture and set of an alarm.
Video Over IPVideo over IP is the transmission and storage of CCTV images over IP networks. Similarly to voice over IP, the demands on the network are typically much higher than computer networks due to quality of service requirements, bandwidths and the negative effects of time delays and packet losses. With the correct levels of network engineering, Video over IP systems can run on common infrastructures.
Video PrinterA device that prints a hard copy of images from a video signal.
Video SurveillanceA surveillance system in which a signal is transmitted to monitors/recording, and control equipment. Includes closed-circuit television (CCTV) and network-based video systems.
VideoconferenceA video communications session between two or more remote locations, with live, animated image transmission and display.
Virtual Guard PatrolsA term used to describe "walking" around a property visually through the use of CCTV cameras. It is referred to as a "Virtual" tour as nothing ever moves except for the cameras.
Visible LightWavelengths of light visible to the human eye.
Visual Alarm VerificationThe transfer to the monitoring facility of visual conditions existing at the protected premises as a result of activation of one or more non-video sensors, to confirm or deny the validity of the alarm signal.
VOIPVoice Over Internet Protocol
Volumetric AlarmA system that detects movement through the interior of an alarmed area, as opposed to the detection of perimeter penetrations.
VPNVirtual Private Network
VSaaSVideo Surveillance as a Service (VSaaS) is an extension of the Software as a Service (SaaS) model of software delivery in the computing industry. Instead of investing in expensive server hardware and software licenses as well as installation, set-up and maintenance costs, users of VSaaS pay a monthly or annual service and license cost for the software to be held and managed by a host company. VSaaS is cloud-based with advantages of access, remote monitoring and ease of deployment to new users with the help of standard browsers. For surveillance systems, it is usually the Video Management Software (VMS) which is hosted but can also involve camera-attached hardware.
VTMTVulnerability and Threat Management Team
VulnerabilityA flaw or weakness in a process, design, implementation, control, system, or organization that could be triggered or intentionally exploited, resulting in a security incident or breach.
Walk testA procedure of actually walking through the area protected by a motion detector to determine the limits of its coverage.
WANWide Area Network - a computer network which connects LANs or single computers in different geographic areas together.
WAPWireless Application Protocol
WashoutUsed to describe a video image where the bright areas or highlighted portions of the image are over-bright and tend to blend together, e.g., the image washed out whenever the sun shone on the front of the building.
Web 2.0Web 2.0 refers to the second generation of web usage rather than any change in the technical specification of the internet. Web 2.0 is more of a social phenomenon than a technical one. These changes are reflected in two main areas: the delivery and use of application software entirely through the web browser and the use of social networking sites.
Web ChatA system that allows two or more logged-in users to set up a typed, real-time, on-line conversation across the World Wide Web.
Web PageA location on the World Wide Web, identified by a URL, which contains a block of data. A web page is stored on a server as a file written in HTML. Web pages for distance education classes often provide a course syllabus and hypertext links to related Internet resources and class materials.
Wet-Pipe Flow SensorA sensor that detects the flow of water in a wet-pipe sprinkler system.
White BalanceA circuit in a camera used to establish "white" for the purpose of color balance in the image.
White LightThe entire spectrum of visible light.
WhiteboardAn electronic bulletin board which allows users across a network to collaborate in real time.
Wide DynamicsWide Dynamic (WD) is a feature that provides electronic balancing of the image to prevent and/or avoid image washout in high glare situations. WD is also used to provide full quality images of individuals / objects in high backlight situations.
WiegandWiegand is the trade name for a technology used in card readers and sensors, particularly for access control applications. Wiegand devices were originally developed by HID Corporation.
Window SwitchA sensor that detects the open or closed position of a window, or an in-between position in a situation where a window may be set to a partially open position while the alarm system is armed, to permit outside air to enter a room without the window open wide enough for an intruder to enter.
WLANWireless Local Area Network
WorkstationA term used to describe the computer that is responsible for organizing, displaying and manipulating the images on an LCD monitor in a digital system.
World Wide WebA distributed information retrieval system in which documents formatted in HyperText Markup Language (HTML) are linked via Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to other documents, as well as audio, video, and graphics files. By using a web browser and clicking on hot spots, computers are connected across the Internet. Use of the Internet has exploded with the development of web browsers such as Mosaic, Netscape Navigator, and Microsoft's Internet Explorer which use a graphical user interface (GUI).
Wrong Way DetectionA feature that is offered by many management platforms. This features allows a video image to have simple video detection with specific triggers that cause alarms versus events … one such trigger is Wrong Way Detection. This detection will create a trigger event if an individual, vehicle or whatever moves the wrong way through the image.
WSCThe Women's Security Council is a network of successful professionals empowering women to realize their potential as industry leaders.
Y/CA method of sending video pictures in 2 separate parts down 2 separate cables. The component parts are Y and C.
YABAYet Another Bloody Acronym. Used in response to statements like "I transferred the JPEG file over the POTS line since I didn't have access to an ISDN or T1 connection."
ZipA compressed archived file created by PKWare's PKZIP or a compatible archiver. Compressing files allows faster transport across computer networks.
ZMODEMA modem file transfer protocol with error checking and crash recovery.
ZoneLarge protected premises are divided into areas or zones, each having its own identification and/or annunciation.
ZoomThe ability to change the magnification of a scene.
Zoom LensA lens with a variable focal length. This lens may be effectively used as a wide angle, standard, or telephoto lens by varying the focal length of the lens. A varifocal lens.
Zoom Lens MetricThese lenses are usually measured in ratios of magnification such as 10:1, or 20:1. The larger the ratio, the further the lens is able to reach. Standard interior applications will usually work between 10:1 and 15:1 lenses affording good images at distances of 30 to 50 meters or more. Exterior applications will usually work between 15:1 to 35:1 ratios due to extended views beyond 85 meters.
Zoom RatioThe ratio of starting focal length (wide position) to the ending focal length (telephoto position) of a zoom lens. Usually represented as a multiplier (i.e. 32x)

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Security Glossary

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